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Healthcare and Domestic Violence in Arkansas. Angela McGraw, CVAP-A The Arkansas Coalition Against Domestic Violence. ACADV Mission Statement. The mission of the Arkansas Coalition Against Domestic Violence is to eliminate domestic violence and promote healthy families. . Training Topics.

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Healthcare and domestic violence in arkansas

Healthcare and Domestic Violence in Arkansas

Angela McGraw, CVAP-A

The Arkansas Coalition Against Domestic Violence


Acadv mission statement
ACADV Mission Statement

The mission of the Arkansas Coalition Against Domestic Violence is to eliminate domestic violence and promote healthy families. 


Training topics
Training Topics

  • Prevalence of Domestic Violence or IPV

  • Arkansas Law

  • Causes of Domestic Violence

  • Understanding Domestic Violence Perpetrators & Victims

  • Impact of IPV on Adults and Children

  • Implications for the Health Care Practice

  • Questions


Prevalence of intimate partner violence ipv
Prevalence of Intimate Partner Violence (IPV)

Family Violence is Very Common:

  • [1]4.8 million women experience IPV related physical assaults & rapes.

  • [2]Men are the victims of about 2.9 million IPV related physical assaults.

  • [3]Two-thirds of women have been raped, physically assaulted, or stalked by a current or former husband, cohabiting partner, boyfriend, or date.


Prevalence of intimate partner violence ipv1
Prevalence of Intimate Partner Violence (IPV)

Family Violence is Very Common:

  • [4]Based on findings from the Bureau of Justice Statistics' National Crime Victimization Survey of 2003: 54 percent of violence against males was conducted by strangers, while 64 percent of violence against females was conducted by nonstrangers.


Ipv victims turn to their health care system
IPV victims turn to their health care system:

1. 1st attempt to get help is from health care providers.

a. legal or battered women’s services

b. individual or cultural issues

2. Community services assist victims in accessing health care providers.


Coordinated community response
Coordinated Community Response

  • Dynamics of IPV Include:

    • Nature of the problem & its impact on health

    • Causes

    • Perpetrators

    • Victims


Coordinated community response1
Coordinated Community Response

Cultural contexts of both domestic violence & health care.

Misunderstanding of one or more of these issues decreases our effectiveness with our patients.



What is Domestic Violence?

Domestic Violence is any abusive, violent, coercive, forceful, or threatening act of word inflicted by one member of a family of household on another.


Arkansas state law
Arkansas State Law

Arkansas Code Title 9: Family Law: Chapter 15: Domestic Abuse: Subsection 103: Definitions. (9-15-103)"Domestic abuse" means: (A) Physical harm, bodily injury, assault, or the infliction of fear of imminent physical harm, bodily injury, or assault between family or household members; or (B) Any sexual conduct between family or household members, whether minors or adults, which constitutes a crime under the laws of this state;


Arkansas state law1
Arkansas State Law

(3) "Family or household members" means spouses, former spouses, parents and children, persons related by blood within the fourth degree of consanguinity, any children residing in the household, persons who presently or in the past have resided or cohabited together, persons who have or have had a child in common, and persons who are presently or in the past have been in a dating relationship together; and


Arkansas state law2
Arkansas State Law

4)(A) "Dating relationship" means a romantic or intimate social relationship between two (2) individuals which shall be determined by examining the following factors: (i) The length of the relationship; (ii) The type of the relationship; and (iii) The frequency of interaction between the two (2) individuals involved in the relationship. (B) "Dating relationship" shall not include a casual relationship or ordinary fraternization between two (2) individuals in a business or social context.


Enhancement penalties
Enhancement Penalties

In the presence of children; means in the physical presence of child or knowing or having reason to know that child is present and may see or hear act.

Offenses against pregnant women.


Definitions 12 12 107
Definitions. (12-12-107)

A health care provider may report to a law enforcement agency an injury to an adult that the health care provider has reason to believe is the result of a battery or other physically abusive conduct, including physical injuries resulting from domestic violence, if the

  • Injured adult agrees; or

  • Health care provider determines that the report is necessary to prevent serious harm to the injured adult.

  • A health care provider shall promptly inform the injured adult that the report has been or will be made.


Laws affecting children
Laws Affecting Children

Act 944 (2003)

An act to enhance the penalty for offenses of domestic violence committed on a pregnant woman.

(A woman is considered pregnant 4 weeks after conception)


Abusive behaviors list
Abusive Behaviors List

Physical

Sexual

Psychological

Use of economics

Use of children to control an adult victim


Effects of ipv
Effects of IPV

Phase 1: Tension Building

Batterer behavior

  • Picks fights

  • Acts jealous and possessive

  • Criticize or threaten

  • Drink and/or uses drugs

  • Moody and unpredictable

    Victim behavior

  • Feels like walking on

    eggshells

  • Tries to reason with batterer

  • Tries to calm batterer

  • Tries to appease batterer

  • Keeps silent and tries to

    keep children silent

  • Feels anxious or afraid

Assault

Honey-moon

Tension


Effects of ipv1

Tension

Assault

Honeymoon

Effects of IPV

Phase 2: Crisis/Assault

Batterer behavior

  • Verbal and physical abuse

  • Sexual and emotional assault

  • Increased control over

    money and partner

  • Destroys property

    Victim behavior

  • Feels fear and shock

  • Protects self and children

  • Uses self-defense

  • Calls for help

  • Tries to leave

  • Prays for it to stop

  • Does what is necessary to

    survive


Effects of ipv2
Effects of IPV

Phase 3: Honeymoon

Batterer behavior

  • Asks for forgiveness

  • Promises it won’t happen again

  • Stops drinking and using drugs

  • Goes to counseling

  • Affectionate

  • Minimizes or denies abuse

    Victim behavior

  • Forgives

  • Returns home

  • Arranges for counseling

  • Feels hopeful

  • Feels manipulated

  • Blames self

  • Minimizes or denies abuse



Causes of ipv

They have solved their problems in the

past with violence

They have effectively exerted control and

power over others through violence

No one has stopped them from being

violent in the past

Causes of IPV


Causes of ipv1
Causes of IPV

IPV is learned in the family, in communities, & in society.

www.myspace.com/video/beatriz/children-imitate...parents/10715169


Ipv is not caused by
IPV is Not Caused by:

Genetics

Illness

Alcohol and/or drugs

Stress and/or Anger

Out of control behavior

Behavior of the victim or problems in the relationship


Understanding ipv perpetrators victims
Understanding IPV Perpetrators & Victims

  • Individual experience with IPV

    • Experience with IPV

    • Sensitivity to stereotypes

    • Behavioral definition of IPV– how to use it in assessing IPV


Activity1
ACTIVITY

I will ask you a series of questions, which I want you to answer just by a show of hands.


Activity2
ACTIVITY

  • Using the behavioral definition of IPV, answer the following questions.

    • How many of you, in your role as a health care provider, have talked with a victim of IPV about the abuse?

    • How many of you, as a health care provider, have talked with a IPV perpetrator about the abuse?


Activity3
ACTIVITY

  • Using the behavioral definition again,

    answer these questions:

    • How many of you, in your nonwork interactions have talked with a victim of IPV about the abuse?

    • How many have talked in that nonwork world with a IPV perpetrator about the abuse?


Activity4
ACTIVITY

  • This time I do not want you to raise your

    hand…do not raise your hands…sit on

    your hands…and just answer these

    questions for yourself:

    • Using the behavioral definition of IPV, how many of you are victims/survivors of IPV?

    • How many of you are perpetrators?


Understanding ipv perpetrators victims1
Understanding IPV Perpetrators & Victims

  • Influence of Prior Experience with IPV on Current Work with Patients


Perpetrators
Perpetrators

Perpetrators come from all groups

Gender

Minimizing, denying, or lying

Coercive tactics by using the health care provider


Victims
Victims

  • The primary victim: The intimate partner

    • Gender

    • Demographics

    • Why they stay

    • Victims’ various presentation in health care settings (next slide)

    • Goal/Support


50% to 70% increase

in gynecological, central nervous system, and

stress-related problems

Campbell et al, 2002

Abused women experience a


Implications for women s health
IMPLICATIONS FOR WOMEN’S HEALTH

  • IPV is a hidden risk factor for many common women’s health problems

  • Screening provides an opportunity for women to make the connection between victimization, health problems, and risk behaviors


“I want to understand how violence affects me mentally and physically…so I can learn to avoid bad situations.”

-woman at crisis center

Wilson et al, 2007


Implications for women s health1
IMPLICATIONS FOR WOMEN’S HEALTH physically…

Cancelled and missed appointments, interrupted care and noncompliance with treatment and follow-up may be related to victimization.


Victims1
Victims physically…

  • The primary victim: The intimate partner

    • Gender

    • Demographics

    • Why they stay

    • Victims’ various presentation in health care settings (next slide)

    • Goal/Support


Victims2
Victims physically…

  • The forgotten victims: The children

    • Victim’s may be accompanied by children or the patient may be the children.

    • Perpetrator’s use of children – physical, emotional, & behavioral effects


Victims3
Victims physically…

Other victims: Those trying to help or innocent bystanders



Implications for the health care practice
Implications for the Health Care Practice physically…

  • IPV can be lethal and is a major health issue.

  • Guiding principles for the health care response to IPV victims:

    • Safety for victims & their children

    • Respect the rights for self-determination

    • Holding perpetrators responsible for violence

    • Advocate on behalf of victims

    • Individual practice & health care system


Implications for the health care practice1
Implications for the Health Care Practice physically…

  • Elements of an improved health care response to domestic violence victims:

    • Screen

    • Assess

    • Intervention

      • giving validating messages

      • providing information

      • safety planning

      • referring

      • follow-up


Implications for the health care practice2
Implications for the Health Care Practice physically…

  • Elements of an improved health care response to IPV:

    • Document


Reminder
REMINDER: physically…

Role of the Health Care Provider

  • R – Remember to ask routinely about violence

  • A - Ask Questions

  • D – Document Findings

  • A – Assess Patient’s Safety

  • R – Review Options


Failure to identify ipv
Failure to Identify IPV physically…

Results in:

  • Incorrect diagnosis

  • Costly & inappropriate tests

  • Ongoing morbidity and mortality


Ipv is a health concern
IPV Is A Health Concern physically…

[5]The national health care costs of IPV are high, with direct medical and mental health care services for victims amounting to nearly $4.1 billion.

[6]Among women admitted to an emergency room for violence-related injuries, 37 percent were abused by an intimate partner.


Ipv is a health concern1
IPV Is A Health Concern physically…

[7]In a study on the effects of violence, women who experienced any type of violence or abuse were significantly more likely to report being in “fair or poor” health, and were almost twice as likely to be coping with some form of depression.


Ipv is a health concern2
IPV Is A Health Concern physically…

  • [8]One study found that women who had experienced any type of personal violence (even when the last episode was 14 to 30 years ago) reported a greater number of chronic physical symptoms than those who had not been abused. The risk of suffering from six or more chronic physical symptoms increased with the number of forms of violence experienced.

  • [9]Although 96 percent of patients believe physicians should inquire about family conflict, two-thirds report that their physician has never asked them about intimate partner violence. Sixty-seven percent of those whose physician has inquired about family conflict reported that the same physician helped them receive assistance.


Ipv is a health concern3
IPV Is A Health Concern physically…

  • Homicide

    • Homicide was the second leading cause of death on the job for women in 2003, according to the Bureau of Labor Statistics.

    • Fifteen percent (15%) of the 119 workplace homicides of women in that year were attributed to a current or former husband or boyfriend.

    • [10]Spouses, boyfriends/girlfriends and ex-boyfriends/ex-girlfriends were responsible for the on-the-job deaths of 321 women and 38 men from 1997-2009, according to the U.S. Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics.


Ipv costs employers
IPV Costs Employers physically…

The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention estimates that the cost of intimate partner rape, physical assault and stalking totaled $5.8 billion each year for direct medical and mental health care services and lost productivity from paid work and household chores.


Women who talked to their health care provider about the abuse were
WOMEN WHO TALKED TO THEIR HEALTH CARE PROVIDER ABOUT THE ABUSE WERE:

~4 times more likely

to use an intervention

2.6 times more likely

to exit the abusive relationship

McCloskey et al, 2006


Resource
RESOURCE ABUSE WERE:

Basile et al, 2007

Download at:http://www.cdc.gov/ncipc/pub-res/images/ipvandsvscreening.pdf


References
References: ABUSE WERE:

[1][2] Department of Health & Human Services. Preventing Intimate Partner & Sexual Violence. Accessed May 16, 2012.

[3] Catalano, S.M. Criminal Victimization, 2003 : Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Justice, Bureau of Justice Statistics, 2004, NCJ 205455.

[4] National Association of Crime Victim Compensation Boards. Compensation to Victims Continues to IncreaseExit Notice. Accessed March 14, 2007.

[5] U.S. Dept. of Health and Human Services, National Center for Injury Prevention and Control. March, 2003. Costs of Intimate Partner Violence Against Women in the United States. Atlanta, GA: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.

[6] U.S. Department of Justice, Bureau of Justice Statistics. (1997). Violence Related Injuries Treated in Hospital Emergency Departments, Special Report.

[7] Collins, K., Schoen, C., Joseph, S, Duchon, L. Simantov, E. & Yellowitz, M. (1999). Health Concerns Across A Woman's Lifespan: The Commonwealth Fund 1998 Survey of Women's Health. 

[8] Christina Nicolaidis et al., 2004, “Violence, Mental Health, and Physical Symptoms in an Academic Internal Medicine Practice,” Journal of General Internal Medicine 19, 81523. Retrieved October 5, 2009.

[9] Sandra K. Burge et al., 2005, “Patients’ Advice to Physicians about Intervening in Family Court,” Annals of Family Medicine 3, 3.

[10] U.S. Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics. 2010. Occupational Homicides by Selected Characteristics, 1997-2009. Available at: http://www.bls.gov/iif/oshwc/cfoi/work_hom.pdf

Max, W, Rice, DP, Finkelstein, E, Bardwell, R, Leadbetter, S. 2004. The Economic Toll of Intimate Partner Violence Against Women in the United States. Violence and Victims, 19(3) 259-272.

Costs of Intimate Partner Violence Against Women in the United States. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Injury Prevention and Control. 2009.


Questions
Questions? ABUSE WERE:

Angela McGraw

Education Coordinator

Arkansas Coalition Against Domestic Violence

(501)907-5612

[email protected]

Website: www.domesticpeace.com


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