AP Psychology. Ms. Simon September 17-24, 2009 Introduction to Research Methods. Hindsight Bias. The tendency to believe, after learning an outcome, that one would have foreseen it. Scientific Theories. Set of principles that organize and predict behaviors or events Link observed facts
September 17-24, 2009
Introduction to Research Methods
The tendency to believe, after learning an outcome, that one would have foreseen it
The Problem with the Case Study psychology::
An individual may be atypical
Cannot generalize results
Difficult to Manipulate Variables
Difficult to quantify data
Example: R= + .37
What is the correlation? psychology:
There is a strong correlation between people who ate oatmeal for breakfast as a child and cancer versus people who ate Frosted Flakes for breakfast as a child
Confounding variable group?:
external differences between the experimental group and the control group other than those
1) Placebo Effect
experimental results caused by expectations alone
How can we control for group?
1) Random Assignment
method of assigning subjects to groups to minimize pre-existing differences between those groups
This is an example of Between subjects design: Participants in the experimental and control group are different individuals
2) Within subjects design
Technique where subjects serve as control and experimental group.
3) Twin Studies:
Q: How can we eliminate experimenter bias?
2. Double blind procedure- research design in which neither the experimenter or the participants know who is in the experimental versus control group
September 24, 2009
) Large difference between the two means
2) Small standard deviations
A standard deviation is the degree by which a score varies from the mean
You don’t need to know the equation!
3) Large Sample Size
6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 10, 10, 11, 11, 11, 11, 12, 12, 13
What’s the mode?
What’s the median?
Skewed Data group?
Be sure to address random selection, random assignment, experimental versus control group, confounding variables, and how you will minimize the effects of experimental and observer bias.