Chapter 12 Conflict, Negotiation, Power, and Politics
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Chapter 12 Conflict, Negotiation, Power, and Politics

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Chapter 12 Conflict, Negotiation, Power, and Politics

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1. Michael A. Hitt C. Chet Miller Adrienne Colella Chapter 12 Conflict, Negotiation, Power, and Politics

2. Green Conflict

3. Knowledge Objectives Explain how conflict can be either functional or dysfunctional, and distinguish among various types of conflict. Discuss common causes of conflict. Describe conflict escalation and the various outcomes of conflict. Explain how people respond to conflict and under what circumstances each type of response is best. Understand how organizations can manage conflict. Describe the basic negotiation process, strategies, and tactics. Explain why organizations must have power to function, and discuss how people gain power in organizations. Define organizational politics and the tactics used to carry out political behavior.

4. The Nature of Conflict Conflict - The process in which one party perceives that its interests are being opposed or negatively affected by another party. Dysfunctional conflict - Conflict that is detrimental to organizational goals and objectives. Functional conflict - Conflict that is beneficial to organizational goals and objectives.Conflict - The process in which one party perceives that its interests are being opposed or negatively affected by another party. Dysfunctional conflict - Conflict that is detrimental to organizational goals and objectives. Functional conflict - Conflict that is beneficial to organizational goals and objectives.

5. Effects of Conflict Effects on Individuals Anger Hostility Frustration Stress Guilt Low job satisfaction Embarrassment Effects on Behavior Reduced motivation and productivity Avoidance of other party Emotional venting Threats Aggression (psychological or physical) Quitting Absenteeism Biased perceptions Stereotyped thinking Increased commitment to one?s position Demonizing others Effects on Interpersonal Relationships Distrust Misunderstandings Inability to see others? perspectives Questioning of others? intentions Changed attitudes towards others Changed amount of power Changed quality of communication Changed amount of communicationEffects on Individuals Anger Hostility Frustration Stress Guilt Low job satisfaction Embarrassment Effects on Behavior Reduced motivation and productivity Avoidance of other party Emotional venting Threats Aggression (psychological or physical) Quitting Absenteeism Biased perceptions Stereotyped thinking Increased commitment to one?s position Demonizing others Effects on Interpersonal Relationships Distrust Misunderstandings Inability to see others? perspectives Questioning of others? intentions Changed attitudes towards others Changed amount of power Changed quality of communication Changed amount of communication

6. Functional Consequences Center graphic and first arrow come in on mouse click ? remaining arrows and other graphics come in automatically at one second intervals. Center graphic and first arrow come in on mouse click ? remaining arrows and other graphics come in automatically at one second intervals.

7. Types of Conflict Personal conflict - Conflict that arises out of personal differences between people, such as differing goals, values, or personalities. Sometimes referred to as relationship conflict. Substantive conflict - Conflict that involves work content, tasks, and goals. Sometimes referred to as task conflict. Procedural conflict - Conflict that arises over responsibilities and how work should be completed. Sometimes referred to as process conflict. Personal conflict - Conflict that arises out of personal differences between people, such as differing goals, values, or personalities. Sometimes referred to as relationship conflict. Substantive conflict - Conflict that involves work content, tasks, and goals. Sometimes referred to as task conflict. Procedural conflict - Conflict that arises over responsibilities and how work should be completed. Sometimes referred to as process conflict.

8. Effects of Types of Conflict on Task Performance

9. Causes of Conflict Graphics enter on mouse clicks. Arrows follow at one second intervals. Conflict within organizations can be caused by many factors, which are frequently interrelated. To manage conflict effectively, managers should understand the causes of conflict and be able to diagnose them. Some of the more common causes are structural factors, communication factors, cognitive factors, individual characteristics, and the history of relations between the parties. Structural factors - Increased specialization; Interdependence among parties; Physical layout; Centralization versus decentralization Communication ? Too little or too much Cognitive factors - Differing expectations; Perceptions of the other party Individual characteristics ? Personality; Value differences; Goals History - Past performance; Previous interactions Graphics enter on mouse clicks. Arrows follow at one second intervals. Conflict within organizations can be caused by many factors, which are frequently interrelated. To manage conflict effectively, managers should understand the causes of conflict and be able to diagnose them. Some of the more common causes are structural factors, communication factors, cognitive factors, individual characteristics, and the history of relations between the parties. Structural factors - Increased specialization; Interdependence among parties; Physical layout; Centralization versus decentralization Communication ? Too little or too much Cognitive factors - Differing expectations; Perceptions of the other party Individual characteristics ? Personality; Value differences; Goals History - Past performance; Previous interactions

10. Un-United

11. Rosie vs. Donald

12. Conflict Escalation Title comes in on mouse click. Each graphic comes in automatically with no delay and a slide whistle sound, last graphic has an explosion sound. Conflict escalation - Process whereby a conflict grows increasingly worse over time. Escalation of conflict is more likely when Cultural differences exist between the parties The parties have a history of antagonism The parties have insecure self-images Status differences between parties are uncertain Parties have strong ties to each other The parties do not identify with one another One or both parties has the goal of beating the other partyTitle comes in on mouse click. Each graphic comes in automatically with no delay and a slide whistle sound, last graphic has an explosion sound. Conflict escalation - Process whereby a conflict grows increasingly worse over time. Escalation of conflict is more likely when Cultural differences exist between the parties The parties have a history of antagonism The parties have insecure self-images Status differences between parties are uncertain Parties have strong ties to each other The parties do not identify with one another One or both parties has the goal of beating the other party

13. Conflict Outcomes Five boxes zoom in one mouse click except ? Lose-Win (lower right corner) comes in automatically after Win-Lose (upper left corner) Lose-Lose ? neither party gets what was initially desired. Win-Lose or Lose-Win ? only one party?s concerns are satisfied and the other party?s concerns are not. Compromise ? both parties give up something in order to receive something else. Win-Win ? both parties get what they want.Five boxes zoom in one mouse click except ? Lose-Win (lower right corner) comes in automatically after Win-Lose (upper left corner) Lose-Lose ? neither party gets what was initially desired. Win-Lose or Lose-Win ? only one party?s concerns are satisfied and the other party?s concerns are not. Compromise ? both parties give up something in order to receive something else. Win-Win ? both parties get what they want.

14. Responses to Conflict Cooperativeness comes in on mouse click followed by low arrow and high automatically. Assertiveness comes in on mouse click followed by arrow and high automatically. Boxes checkerboard in on mouse click in the order listed below. People respond to conflict in different ways. One person may try to win at all costs, whereas another person may try to ensure that both his or her own concerns and those of the other party are met. There are five potential responses to conflict, as well as situations in which each response is appropriate. Each response is described in terms of assertiveness and cooperativeness. Here, assertiveness refers to the extent to which a party tries to satisfy his or her own concerns. Cooperativeness refers to the extent to which a party attempts to satisfy the other party?s concerns. Competing ? An attempt to satisfy personal needs at the expense of the other person. Also called forcing or dominating. Often used in the form of formal authority, physical threats, manipulation, etc. You feel vindicated, but the other party feels defeated. Useful when quick decision action is needed, when an unpopular course of action is needed, when safety or rules are an issue, and when the other party will take advantage of noncompetitive behavior. Accommodating ? Opposite of competing. Satisfies the other party?s concerns while neglecting your own. Emphasis on preserving a friendly relationship at the expense of appraising issues. Can be used when one party believes it is impossible to win. Caution ? the other person can take advantage of you. Avoiding ? Neglects the interests of both parties. Sidesteps the conflict or postpones a solution. Can be effective when allowing emotions to cool down or as a means of delaying a decision until effective solutions can be found. Used by managers who are not emotionally able to handle conflict. Problems don?t get resolved. Compromising ? Intermediate response while trying to bring partial satisfaction for both parties. Parties may seek expedient, not effective, solutions. Can result in game playing and encourages requests for more than what is needed. Each party gives up something but gets something in return. Collaborating - Attempts to fully address the concerns of both parties. Does not seek to assign blame. Solution is satisfactory to both parties. Problem is likely to be resolved.Cooperativeness comes in on mouse click followed by low arrow and high automatically. Assertiveness comes in on mouse click followed by arrow and high automatically. Boxes checkerboard in on mouse click in the order listed below. People respond to conflict in different ways. One person may try to win at all costs, whereas another person may try to ensure that both his or her own concerns and those of the other party are met. There are five potential responses to conflict, as well as situations in which each response is appropriate. Each response is described in terms of assertiveness and cooperativeness. Here, assertiveness refers to the extent to which a party tries to satisfy his or her own concerns. Cooperativeness refers to the extent to which a party attempts to satisfy the other party?s concerns. Competing ? An attempt to satisfy personal needs at the expense of the other person. Also called forcing or dominating. Often used in the form of formal authority, physical threats, manipulation, etc. You feel vindicated, but the other party feels defeated. Useful when quick decision action is needed, when an unpopular course of action is needed, when safety or rules are an issue, and when the other party will take advantage of noncompetitive behavior. Accommodating ? Opposite of competing. Satisfies the other party?s concerns while neglecting your own. Emphasis on preserving a friendly relationship at the expense of appraising issues. Can be used when one party believes it is impossible to win. Caution ? the other person can take advantage of you. Avoiding ? Neglects the interests of both parties. Sidesteps the conflict or postpones a solution. Can be effective when allowing emotions to cool down or as a means of delaying a decision until effective solutions can be found. Used by managers who are not emotionally able to handle conflict. Problems don?t get resolved. Compromising ? Intermediate response while trying to bring partial satisfaction for both parties. Parties may seek expedient, not effective, solutions. Can result in game playing and encourages requests for more than what is needed. Each party gives up something but gets something in return. Collaborating - Attempts to fully address the concerns of both parties. Does not seek to assign blame. Solution is satisfactory to both parties. Problem is likely to be resolved.

15. Negotiation Negotiation - A process by which parties with different preferences and interests attempt to agree on a solution. Furthermore, the parties are committed to achieving a peaceful means of dispute resolution. Often requires parties to compromise, thus changing their original positions Parties must bargain in good faith Requires managers to build their skills in negotiation Power underlies all conflict situations, and is critical to resolving the conflict Negotiation - A process by which parties with different preferences and interests attempt to agree on a solution. Furthermore, the parties are committed to achieving a peaceful means of dispute resolution. Often requires parties to compromise, thus changing their original positions Parties must bargain in good faith Requires managers to build their skills in negotiation Power underlies all conflict situations, and is critical to resolving the conflict

16. Negotiation Strategies Each checkerboards in on mouse click Distributive Bargaining ? a negotiation where one party?s goals are in direct conflict with the goals of another party. Integrative Bargaining ? a negotiation strategy where the nature of the problem permits a solution that is attractive to both parties ? in other words, a win-win outcome.Each checkerboards in on mouse click Distributive Bargaining ? a negotiation where one party?s goals are in direct conflict with the goals of another party. Integrative Bargaining ? a negotiation strategy where the nature of the problem permits a solution that is attractive to both parties ? in other words, a win-win outcome.

17. Negotiation Tactics Each comes in on mouse click Distributive Tactics Convince the other that breaking off negotiations would be costly for the other or for yourself. Convince the other that you feel very committed to reaching your target outcome. Prevent the other from making a firm commitment to an outcome close to the other?s target. Allow the other to abandon his position without loss of face or other cost. Convince the other that your own target outcome is fair. Convince the other that their target outcome is unfair. Convince the other that important third parties favor your own target outcome. Use non-hostile humor to build positive affect. Distract the other to impair the other?s ability to concentrate. Integrative Tactics Show the other that their concerns are important to you. Show the other that your target outcome is too important to compromise. Show the other that a win-win outcome is a possibility. Demonstrate that you are flexible with respect to various solutions. Insist on fair criteria for deciding among possible solutions. Make collaborative norms salient. Minimize use of behaviors or tactics that would cause negative emotions. Provide an emotionally supportive climate. Shield the other from emotional distractions. Attitudinal Structuring Tactics Use similar language. Disassociate oneself from others not liked by the opponent. Reward opponent?s behavior. Express appreciation. Remind opponent of role obligations. Assist opponent in working through negative attitudes. Return favors. Fight the antagonism, not the antagonist. Associate oneself with others the opponent likes. Each comes in on mouse click Distributive Tactics Convince the other that breaking off negotiations would be costly for the other or for yourself. Convince the other that you feel very committed to reaching your target outcome. Prevent the other from making a firm commitment to an outcome close to the other?s target. Allow the other to abandon his position without loss of face or other cost. Convince the other that your own target outcome is fair. Convince the other that their target outcome is unfair. Convince the other that important third parties favor your own target outcome. Use non-hostile humor to build positive affect. Distract the other to impair the other?s ability to concentrate. Integrative Tactics Show the other that their concerns are important to you. Show the other that your target outcome is too important to compromise. Show the other that a win-win outcome is a possibility. Demonstrate that you are flexible with respect to various solutions. Insist on fair criteria for deciding among possible solutions. Make collaborative norms salient. Minimize use of behaviors or tactics that would cause negative emotions. Provide an emotionally supportive climate. Shield the other from emotional distractions. Attitudinal Structuring Tactics Use similar language. Disassociate oneself from others not liked by the opponent. Reward opponent?s behavior. Express appreciation. Remind opponent of role obligations. Assist opponent in working through negative attitudes. Return favors. Fight the antagonism, not the antagonist. Associate oneself with others the opponent likes.

18. The Negotiation Process Preparation zooms in on mouse click, BATNA comes in on mouse click and disappears on next mouse click. Arrows wipe in on mouse click followed by circles zooming in after one second. Preparation. Prior to any negotiation, each party outlines the specific goals he or she hopes to achieve. At this point, negotiators must determine their best alternative to a negotiated agreement (BATNA). This is the least that the negotiator is willing to accept. Also, during the preparation stage, negotiators should engage in self- and opponent-analysis. It is important for negotiators to understand their own behavior during negotiations as well as that of the opponent. At this stage the following questions should be asked about one?s opponent: What is the opponent?s position and power? Does the opponent have to confer with others to make concessions? What does the opponent consider a ?win?? What is the history of the opponent?s negotiating style? Does he or she tend to focus on distributive strategies or rely on integrative strategies? Determining the negotiation process. Determine the timeline, place, and structure of the negotiations. Also agreements should be made about confidentiality, the sharing of information, and how agreements will be approved. At this point it should also be clarified who will be present during the negotiation process. Negotiating the agreement. During this stage the actual negotiation takes place and negotiation strategies and tactics are chosen and employed. Closing the deal. At this stage both parties should be quite clear about the conclusion of the negotiations and the particulars of the final agreement. Final agreements should be formalized and it should be made clear what each party?s responsibility is in implementing the agreement. Preparation zooms in on mouse click, BATNA comes in on mouse click and disappears on next mouse click. Arrows wipe in on mouse click followed by circles zooming in after one second. Preparation. Prior to any negotiation, each party outlines the specific goals he or she hopes to achieve. At this point, negotiators must determine their best alternative to a negotiated agreement (BATNA). This is the least that the negotiator is willing to accept. Also, during the preparation stage, negotiators should engage in self- and opponent-analysis. It is important for negotiators to understand their own behavior during negotiations as well as that of the opponent. At this stage the following questions should be asked about one?s opponent: What is the opponent?s position and power? Does the opponent have to confer with others to make concessions? What does the opponent consider a ?win?? What is the history of the opponent?s negotiating style? Does he or she tend to focus on distributive strategies or rely on integrative strategies? Determining the negotiation process. Determine the timeline, place, and structure of the negotiations. Also agreements should be made about confidentiality, the sharing of information, and how agreements will be approved. At this point it should also be clarified who will be present during the negotiation process. Negotiating the agreement. During this stage the actual negotiation takes place and negotiation strategies and tactics are chosen and employed. Closing the deal. At this stage both parties should be quite clear about the conclusion of the negotiations and the particulars of the final agreement. Final agreements should be formalized and it should be made clear what each party?s responsibility is in implementing the agreement.

19. Costly Conflict Resolution

20. Power The ability of those who hold it to achieve outcomes they desire. The ability of one person to get another person to do something that he or she would not normally do. Persuasion is often the exercise of power.

21. Bases of Power Each one zooms in on mouse click Legitimate Power ? Power derived from the position one holds in the organization; also known as formal authority. Reward Power ? Power resulting from the ability to provide others with desired outcomes. Coercive Power ? Power resulting from the ability to punish others. Expert Power ? Power resulting from special expertise or technical knowledge. Referent Power ? Power resulting from others? desire to identify with a person ? also known as charismatic power.Each one zooms in on mouse click Legitimate Power ? Power derived from the position one holds in the organization; also known as formal authority. Reward Power ? Power resulting from the ability to provide others with desired outcomes. Coercive Power ? Power resulting from the ability to punish others. Expert Power ? Power resulting from special expertise or technical knowledge. Referent Power ? Power resulting from others? desire to identify with a person ? also known as charismatic power.

22. An Example of Power

23. Strategic Contingencies Model People need to identify strategic contingencies faced by an organization and gain control over them Anyone who can help reduce uncertainties faced by the organization will gain power People who are irreplaceable have power Power can result from controlling the decision process, either by setting parameters on the types of solutions that are acceptable or by controlling the range of alternatives to be considered

24. Organizational Politics Behavior that is directed toward furthering one?s own self-interests without concern for the interests or well-being of others Goal of political behavior is to exert influence on others Most managers and associates (70%) feel they have been harmed by political behavior of others Fewer managers and associates (45%) feel they have gained power and influence by acting politically

25. Levels of Politics Each one wipes down on mouse clickEach one wipes down on mouse click

26. Political Tactics Each one zooms in on mouse click in the order below Rational persuasion - Use logical arguments or factual information to persuade targets that the persuader?s request will result in beneficial outcomes, ignoring potential disadvantages. Consultation - Get the target to participate in the planning or execution of whatever the politician wants accomplished. Personal appeal - Focus on the target?s loyalty or affection immediately prior to asking for his or her help in doing something. Ingratiation - Make the target feel good by flattering or helping him or her. Inspirational appeal - Appeal to the targets? important values and ideals. Exchange - Volunteer a favor in order to gain a favor in return. Coalition - People with common interests join together to pursue their common interest. Legitimizing - Make a request seem legitimate or official. Pressure - Use threats, nagging, or demands to influence targets. Each one zooms in on mouse click in the order below Rational persuasion - Use logical arguments or factual information to persuade targets that the persuader?s request will result in beneficial outcomes, ignoring potential disadvantages. Consultation - Get the target to participate in the planning or execution of whatever the politician wants accomplished. Personal appeal - Focus on the target?s loyalty or affection immediately prior to asking for his or her help in doing something. Ingratiation - Make the target feel good by flattering or helping him or her. Inspirational appeal - Appeal to the targets? important values and ideals. Exchange - Volunteer a favor in order to gain a favor in return. Coalition - People with common interests join together to pursue their common interest. Legitimizing - Make a request seem legitimate or official. Pressure - Use threats, nagging, or demands to influence targets.

27. Political Skill Find it easy to imagine themselves in others? positions or see their points of view Can understand situations, determine the best response and adjust their behavior accordingly Develop large networks and are known by many people Easily gain cooperation of others Make others feel at ease

28. The Strategic Lens

29. Questions


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