Late 1960’s- 1970’s Need to focus in lang teaching on communicative proficiency rather than on mere mastery of structures.
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Late 1960’s- 1970’s
Need to focus in lang teaching on communicative proficiency rather than on mere mastery of structures.
Forerunners: C. Candlin, H. Widdowson, Hymes). European Common Market. 1980: Van Ek and Alexander (the Threshold level), Wilkins, Brumfit (functional-notional categories).
Meaning is paramount. Dialogs, if used, centre around communicative functions and are not normally memorized.
Contextualization is a basic premise.
Lang learning is learning to communicate.
Communicative activities from the very beginning.
Comprehensible pronunciation. Native lang accepted where feasible.
Translation accepted in cases.
Language is created by the individual often through trial and error.
Competence and performance.
Origins and forerunners: Behavioural psychology (Skinner), structural linguistics (Bloomfield, Fries, Lado), ASTP (Army Specialized Training Programs)
Attends to structure and form, more than meaning.
Demands memorization of structure-based dialogs.
Language items are not necessarily contextualised.Lang learning is learning structures, sounds, or words.
Drilling is a central technique.
Use of native lang forbidden.Translation forbidden.
Reading and writing deferred.
Language is habit, so errors must be prevented at all costs.