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PPA 419 – Aging Services Administration. Lecture 7c – A Life-Course Perspective on Housing Expectations and Shifts in Middle Age. Source:. Julie T. Robison and Phyllis Moen. 2000. “A Life-Course Perspective on Housing Expectations and Shifts in Middle Age.” Research on Aging 22: 499-532.

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PPA 419 – Aging Services Administration

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Ppa 419 aging services administration

PPA 419 – Aging Services Administration

Lecture 7c – A Life-Course Perspective on Housing Expectations and Shifts in Middle Age


Source

Source:

  • Julie T. Robison and Phyllis Moen. 2000. “A Life-Course Perspective on Housing Expectations and Shifts in Middle Age.” Research on Aging 22: 499-532.


Introduction

Introduction

  • The study applies a life-course approach and retirement migration strategy to develop a model of future housing expectations and actual moves for a random sample of men and women in late midlife.


Introduction1

Introduction

  • Given the rapid expansion of the older population in the United States and the growing prevalence of chronic diseases, housing and related services for older people are increasingly on the policy agenda.


Introduction2

Introduction

  • Several different types of housing options have become available on a continuum from independence to institutionalization.

    • Assisted living facilities

    • Long-term home health care

    • Continuing care retirement communities

    • Shared housing with two or more nonrelatives

    • ECHO cottages

    • Other temporary apartment arrangements


Introduction3

Introduction

  • The study investigates the expectations of a sample of late-midlife workers and retirees (ages 50-72) regarding eight particular future housing arrangements, including aging in place.

  • Longitudinal data are then examined to determine the odds of actually moving within the subsequent two-year period.

  • The study draws on the life-course perspective and retirement migration theory to develop a model of postretirement housing plans, expectations, and reality


Life course perspective

Life-course perspective

  • The life-course perspective underlines the importance of continuity and change during the life span, emphasizing cumulative patterns and role trajectories.

  • Earlier experiences shape later life transitions, which shape the subsequent life course.


Life course perspective1

Life-course perspective

  • The life-course perspective also emphasizes human agency and subjective appraisals and expectations: strategies of adaptive response.

  • The context also influences housing expectations and subsequent moves: prior residential mobility, community and family involvements, personal and family health, current economic, social, and health situations.


Retirement migration

Retirement migration

  • Basic demographic theory regarding migration focuses on economic pushes and pulls that influence decisions to move or stay in a particular housing situation.

    • Quality of life

    • Family circumstances

    • Access to amenities

    • Economic concerns (cost of living, retirement status).


Research questions

Research questions

  • Are there distinct patterns of expectations for men and women?

  • What past experiences and current situations promote expectations regarding aging in place as a viable option?

  • Are particular housing arrangements perceived as more or less likely based on midlifer’s location in the social structure and their own-life course biographies?


Expectations

Expectations

  • Vulnerable (older, retired, women, metropolitan, lower socioeconomic status, non-white) respondents will have higher expectations of future housing arrangements that provide higher levels of support.

  • Lower social integration will increase likelihood of a move to more supportive environments.

  • Biographic patterns of mobility will anticipate more moves in the future as will retirement.


Data and methods

Data and Methods

  • Sample

    • Cornell Retirement and Well-Being study (762 randomly selected retirees and active workers, 50-72, from six large organizations in upstate New York.

    • 67% response, 702 in first wave, 678 in second wave.


Data and methods1

Data and Methods

  • Dependent Variables

    • Eight dependent variables ranging on a probability of use scale from 0 to 100%.

      • Remain in home

      • Remain in home with modification

      • Reverse mortgage

      • Retirement community

      • Long-term care insurance

      • Move in with family member

      • Shared housing

      • ECHO housing

    • One dependent variable measuring actual moves in a two-year period.


Data and methods2

Data and methods

  • Independent Variables

    • Demographic

      • Gender

      • Metropolitan vs. nonmetropolitan

      • Education

      • Marital Status

      • Race/ethnicity

      • Retirement status


Data and methods3

Data and methods

  • Independent variables (contd.)

    • Housing tenure (rent, own with mortgage, own outright

    • Social integration

      • Volunteering or caregiving

      • Amount of contact with neighbors and relatives

      • Proximity to grandchildren

      • Religious involvement


Data and methods4

Data and methods

  • Independent variables (contd.)

    • Health measures

      • Objective and subjective health

      • Psychological health

      • Spouse’s health

      • Respondent’s and spouse’s health histories

    • Change measures between wave 1 and wave 2 for actual moves

      • Marital status

      • Work status

      • Illness or hospitalization.


Data and methods5

Data and Methods

  • Separate ordered logit and logistic regressions for men and women


Results

Results

  • Dependent variables

    • Never move – 57%

    • Stay in home with modification – 49%

    • Purchase long-term care insurance – 34%

    • Live in a retirement community – 23%

    • Obtain a reverse mortgage – 18%

    • Move in with family member – 12%

    • Share household with unrelated people – 9%

    • Live in ECHO cottage – 7%


Summary results

Summary results

  • Late midlife workers and retirees expect to age in place.

  • Expectations to live in highly supportive environments are uniformly low.


Summary results1

Summary results

  • Older, nonmetropolitan respondents with less education and more years in their homes express the strongest expectations that they will age in place.

  • Those people who rent their homes, have weaker ties to their communities, and have more symptoms of depression tend to foresee a move in the future.


Summary results2

Summary results

  • Physical health of the respondents and their spouses do not predict future housing expectations.

  • Prior expectations about aging in place, residential history, and life-course changes in marriage and retirement predict actual moves within the next two years, with differing patterns for men and women.


Policy implications

Policy implications

  • A large proportion of Americans expect to age in place

  • But, many do expect to make alternative housing arrangements.

  • This implies maintaining a range of options.

  • Women and more educated workers more likely to purchase LTC insurance.

  • Three most supportive options least anticipated.

  • Lack of relationship to health presages potential problems in future.


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