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Distributions in Motion Growth and the Dynamics of Poverty and InequalityPowerPoint Presentation

Distributions in Motion Growth and the Dynamics of Poverty and Inequality

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Distributions in Motion Growth and the Dynamics of Poverty and Inequality

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Distributions in MotionGrowth and the Dynamics of Poverty and Inequality

Frontiers in Practice Workshop

Francisco H.G. Ferreira

March 23rd, 2006

Roadmap

- An integrated framework for growth and distribution dynamics.
- Understanding changes in distributions: statistical counterfactual decompositions.
- Understanding changes in distributions: towards economic decompositions?

1. An integrated framework for growth and distribution dynamics

Growth (in the mean), poverty dynamics and inequality dynamics are simply different aspect of the same process.

Growth in Thailand, 1975-1992, seen as rightward shifts in the Cumulative Distribution Function.

Source: Ahuja et al. 1997

Growth in mean incomes dynamics

- Growth in mean incomes is simply a weighted average of income growth along the distribution, with weights given by relative incomes.
- This can be written in terms of the growth incidence curve (GIC):
- So growth (in the mean) is simply a particular aggregation of the percentile-specific growth rates in the GIC.

The Growth Incidence Curve was first formally described by Ravallion and Chen, 2003.

Changes in Poverty dynamicsDrawing onKraay (2003)

Write a general poverty measure formulation as:

where

gives you the FGT class, for instance, and

gives you the Watts index.

Differentiating with respect to time yields

with

and

So poverty changes are also simply a particular aggregation of the information in the GIC.

Changes in inequality dynamics

- Like poverty measures, most inequality indices can be written as functions of a sum of “individual distance indicators”:
- So, gives you the Generalized Entropy Class.
- And gives you the Atkinson Class, etc..

Differentiating with respect to time yields

with

and

So economic growth, changes in poverty and changes in inequality are effectively different ways of weighing the income changes along the distribution which are presented in a growth incidence curve.

∆P0 = +2pp

∆P0 = -9pp

2. Understanding changes in distributions: inequality are effectively different ways of weighing the income changes along the distribution which are presented in a growth incidence curve.statistical counterfactual decompositions.

- To seek an understanding of changes in the distribution of incomes is to seek an understanding of why the GIC looks the way it does.
- To understand the nature and determinants of the incidence or distribution of economic growth.
- The first step is statistical:

Counterfactual income distribution

Residual

Counterfactual GIC

Statistical counterfactual decompositions inequality are effectively different ways of weighing the income changes along the distribution which are presented in a growth incidence curve.(continued)

- Of course, this is just another way of describing generalized Oaxaca-Blinder decompositions such as
- Where the counterfactual distribution is constructed from:
- By simulating a change in in either the conditional distribution of y on X, or on the joint distribution of X.
- For example:

Statistical counterfactual decompositions inequality are effectively different ways of weighing the income changes along the distribution which are presented in a growth incidence curve.(continued)

- There are a number of ways to implement such simulations in practice.
- They may be based simply on reweighing the sample, so as to reproduce the changes in the distribution of some exogenous characteristic, such as the age composition of the labor force, or the number of people receiving the minimum wage.
- DiNardo, Fortin and Lemieux (1996)
- Hyslop and Maré (2005)

- They may be based in importing parameters from models estimated in one year to the other.
- Bourguignon, Ferreira and Lustig (2004)

- They may be based on aggregating counterfactual transfers (with or without simulated household response
- Bourguignon, Ferreira and Leite (2003)

- They may be based simply on reweighing the sample, so as to reproduce the changes in the distribution of some exogenous characteristic, such as the age composition of the labor force, or the number of people receiving the minimum wage.

An Example from Brazil, 1976-1996. inequality are effectively different ways of weighing the income changes along the distribution which are presented in a growth incidence curve.(Ferreira and Paes de Barros, 1999)

Level 1: g (y | X)

Aggregation rule:

Earnings:

Level 2:(X)

Occupational Choice:

Education:MLE (EA, R, r, g, nah; )

Fertility:MLC ( nch E, A, R, r, g, nah; )

Other Incomes:T ( y0h E, A, R, r, g, nah; )

Comparing g(p) and g inequality are effectively different ways of weighing the income changes along the distribution which are presented in a growth incidence curve.s(p) (i): The price effect.

Comparing g(p) and g inequality are effectively different ways of weighing the income changes along the distribution which are presented in a growth incidence curve.s(p) (ii): The price effect and the occupational structure effect combined.

Comparing g(p) and g inequality are effectively different ways of weighing the income changes along the distribution which are presented in a growth incidence curve.s(p) (i): Price, Occupation, Education and Fertility effects.

3. Understanding changes in distributions: inequality are effectively different ways of weighing the income changes along the distribution which are presented in a growth incidence curve.towards economic decompositions?

- Generalized Oaxaca-Blinder decompositions such as those discussed above, whether parametric or semi-parametric, suffer from two shortcomings:
- Path-dependence
- The counterfactuals do not correspond to an economic equilibrium. There is no guarantee that those counterfactual incomes would be sustained after agents were allowed to respond and the economy reached a new equilibrium.

3.1. Partial Equilibrium Approaches inequality are effectively different ways of weighing the income changes along the distribution which are presented in a growth incidence curve.

- The first step towards economic decompositions, in which the counterfactual distributions may be interpreted as corresponding to a counterfactual economic equilibrium, are partial in nature.
- One example comes from attempts to simulate distributions after some transfer, in which household responses to the transfer (in terms of child schooling and labor supply) are incorporated.
- Bourguignon, Ferreira and Leite (2003)
- Todd and Wolpin (2005)
- (These two papers differ considerably in how they model behavior. Todd and Wolpin are much more structural.)

3.2General Equilibrium Approaches. inequality are effectively different ways of weighing the income changes along the distribution which are presented in a growth incidence curve.

- However, a number of changes which are isolated in statistical counterfactuals – such as changes in returns to education, or in the distribution of years of schooling – are likely to have general equilibrium effects.
- Similarly, certain policies one might like to simulate may require a general equilibrium setting.
- There are two basic approaches to generate GE-compatible counterfactual income distributions (and thus counterfactual GICs):
- Fully disaggregated CGE models, where each household is individually linked to the production and consumption modules. E.g. Chen and Ravallion, 2003, for China.
- “Leaner” macroeconomic models linked to microsimulation modules on a household survey dataset. E.g. Bourguignon, Robilliard and Robinson, 2005, for Indonesia.

Distributional Impact of China’s accession to the WTO. inequality are effectively different ways of weighing the income changes along the distribution which are presented in a growth incidence curve.(Chen & Ravallion, 2003)

GE-compatible counterfactual GICs corresponding to a specific policy.

3.2General Equilibrium Approaches inequality are effectively different ways of weighing the income changes along the distribution which are presented in a growth incidence curve.(continued).

- In the Macro-Micro approach, some key counterfactual linkage variables are generated in a “leaner” macro model, whose parameters may have been calibrated or estimated from a time-series, and then fed into sector-specific equations estimated in the household survey, to generate a counterfactual GIC.

Macro model

Linkage AggregatedVariables

(prices, wages, employment levels)

Household income micro-simulation model

The distribution of the impacts of the 1999 Brazilian devaluation(Ferreira, Leite, Pereira and Pichetti, 2004)

Conclusions devaluation

- Growth, changes in poverty and changes in inequality are all summary measures of changes in the disaggregated distribution of incomes.
- Understanding these changes requires understanding the determinants of the growth incidence curve.
- Counterfactual simulations that isolate the individual impacts of changes in prices, in occupational structure, in the distribution of household endowments, or in transfers, are a useful first step.
- Counterfactual GICs that are consistent with (partial or general) economic equilibria are more difficult to estimate, as they involve modeling behavior. But starts have been made.
- Beware of Lucas critique and the ‘black-box’ critique.

- When thinking about policies, do not think of “growth versus distribution”. Think ‘policy incidence’.