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Computer Graphics Introduction I. A Survey of Computer Graphics. What is computer graphics? Interactive computer graphics The history of computer graphics Computer graphics applications Device. What is Computer Graphics?. Some possible definitions:

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Computer Graphics

Introduction I


A survey of computer graphics
A Survey of Computer Graphics

  • What is computer graphics?

  • Interactive computer graphics

  • The history of computer graphics

  • Computer graphics applications

  • Device


What is computer graphics
What is Computer Graphics?

  • Some possible definitions:

    • Approaches, Methods, Technics and Tools for virtual world visualization

    • Generating 2D images of a 3D world represented in computer

  • Main tasks

    • Modeling: construct the 3D model of the scene

    • Rendering: compute the color of each pixel

    • Animation


What is computer graphics 1 2
What is Computer Graphics? (1/2)

Computer graphics generally means creation, storage and manipulation of models and images

Such models come from diverse and expanding set of fields including physical, mathematical, artistic, biological, and even conceptual (abstract) structures

Frame from animation by William Latham, shown at SIGGRAPH 1992. Latham uses rules that govern patterns of natural forms to create his artwork.


What is computer graphics 2 2

William Fetter coined term “computer graphics” in 1960 to describe new design methods he was pursuing at Boeing

Created a series of widely reproduced images on pen plotter exploring cockpit design, using 3D model of human body.

What is Computer Graphics? (2/2)

“Perhaps the best way to define computer graphics is to find out what it is not. It is not a machine. It is not a computer, nor a group of computer programs. It is not the know-how of a graphic designer, a programmer, a writer, a motion picture specialist, or a reproduction specialist.

Computer graphics is all these – a consciously managed and documented technology directed toward communicating information accurately and descriptively.”

Computer Graphics, by William A. Fetter, 1966


What is interactive computer graphics 1 3
What is Interactive Computer Graphics? to describe new design methods he was pursuing at Boeing(1/3)

User controls contents, structure, and appearance of objects and their displayed images via rapid visual feedback

Basic components of an interactive graphics system

input (e.g., mouse, tablet and stylus, force feedback device, scanner, live video streams…)

processing (and storage)

display/output (e.g., screen, paper-based printer, video recorder, non-linear editor…)

First truly interactive graphics system, Sketchpad, pioneered at MIT by Ivan Sutherland for his 1963 Ph.D. thesis

Sketchpad in 1963. Note use of a CRT monitor, light pen and function-key panel.


What is interactive computer graphics 2 3

Before Sketchpad, output via plotters/printers, input via keypunch, both in batch

What is Interactive Computer Graphics? (2/3)

Batch (1950s – now)

Card punching (left). IBM 704 (right) took up a whole room and was capable of about 4,000 arithmetic operations/second.

Cool facts: Whirlwind, built in early 50’s at MIT, cost $4.5 million and could perform 40,000 additions/second. Mac 512K, list price $3,195 in 1984, could do 500,000.


The graphics process
The Graphics Process keypunch, both in batch


Modeling
Modeling keypunch, both in batch

Modeling with Maya


Modeling1
Modeling keypunch, both in batch

Modeling from image


Modeling2
Modeling keypunch, both in batch

The tree model

(a) without leaves (b) with leaves


Modeling geometry processing
Modeling---Geometry Processing keypunch, both in batch


Rendering
Rendering keypunch, both in batch

Indirect diffusion

Caustic effect


Rendering1
Rendering keypunch, both in batch

“A Rapid Hierarchical Rendering Technique for Translucent Materials”. Jensen, Siggraph’2002


Rendering2
Rendering keypunch, both in batch


Questions
Questions keypunch, both in batch

  • Graphics Vs. Image ?

    - geometric elements and attributes

    - pixel arrays

  • Computer Graphics Vs. Image Processing

    • CG : 3D Models ->rendering -> images

    • I. P : 2D images ->analysis->models(other information, special effects...)


The history of computer graphics
The History of Computer Graphics keypunch, both in batch

Pioneer: Ivan Sutherland

1963: Sutherland’s PhD Thesis:“Sketchpad: A Man-machine Graphical Communications System.”, MIT,1963

First time used“Computer Graphics”. CG started to be a novel and independent scientific branch.


Pioneer ivan sutherland
Pioneer keypunch, both in batch:Ivan Sutherland

  • First truly interactive graphics system, Sketchpad, pioneered at MIT by Ivan Sutherland for his 1963 Ph.D. thesis

Sketchpad in 1963. Note use of a CRT monitor, light pen and function-key panel.


The history of computer graphics1
The History of Computer Graphics keypunch, both in batch

  • Poineer: Ivan Sutherland

  • 1962: Pierre Bezier put forward “Bezier curve” for the representation of space curve

  • 1967: Wylie added lighting effect in objects representation

  • 1969: Xerox developed GUI (Graphic User Interface)

  • 1973: Richard Shoup invented Raster-Scan Display

  • The great improvement of graphic techniques

    • Phong lighting model(1973);Texture mapping(1974);Ray tracing(1980);Radiosity(1984)…


The history of computer graphics2
The History of Computer Graphics keypunch, both in batch

  • Industry

    • ILM(Industrial Light and Magic): an Academy Award winning motion picture visual effects company, 1975

    • SGI (Silicon Graphics, Inc): 1982

    • Pixar 1986

    • AutoDesk, Adobe

  • Display card

    • 1994: the first PC display card --- by 3DLabs

    • 1995.11: Voodoo --- by 3DFx

    • 1999: Geforce256, the first GPU --- by nVidia

    • nVidia and ATI

      • Geforce 8800、Radeon HD 2900 XT


The history of computer graphics3
The History of Computer Graphics keypunch, both in batch

  • Graphics Standard

    • GKS(Germany, 1970’s); PHIGS(ISO, 1986); GKS-3D(1988)

    • OpenGL(SGI, 1992); DirectX(Microsoft); Java3D(Sun)

  • Graphics Application Software

    • 3DS Max, Maya, LightWave 3D

    • Renderman

    • AutoCAD, Solid Work


Computer graphics applications
Computer Graphics Applications keypunch, both in batch

  • Computer Aided Design/Manufacturing

  • Entertainment

  • Education&Science and Training

  • Visualization in Scientific Computing

  • Graphical User Interface

  • ……


Computer aided design manufacturing cad cam
Computer Aided Design/Manufacturing (CAD/CAM) keypunch, both in batch

  • Computer aided design in airplane, car, watercraft, architecture, costume, toy…


Cad cam
CAD/CAM keypunch, both in batch

  • Boeing 777(1990.10 – 1994.4)

    • All the designing work is in computer graphics stations and terminals

    • No paper

  • Boeing 747(comparing)

    • 16320 meters paper!


Cad cam1
CAD/CAM keypunch, both in batch

Computer aided design/Manufacturing in airplane


Cad cam2
CAD/CAM keypunch, both in batch

Computer aided architecture design


Cad cam3
CAD/CAM keypunch, both in batch

Computer aided design in shoe Manufacturing


Entertainment
Entertainment keypunch, both in batch

  • Movies, Animations

  • Games

  • NPR (Non-Photorealistic Rendering)

  • ……


Special effects in movie
Special Effects in Movie keypunch, both in batch

Jurassic Park(1993)


Special effects in movie1
Special Effects in Movie keypunch, both in batch

Titanic (1997)


3d animation movie
3D Animation Movie keypunch, both in batch

Toy story (1995)

Monster’s Inc. (2001)


3d animation movie1
3D Animation Movie keypunch, both in batch

Hair

Skin

Final Fantasy (2001)


Beijing Olympics opening ceremony keypunch, both in batch


Games
Games keypunch, both in batch


Npr non photorealistic rendering

Toon Shading keypunch, both in batch

NPR (Non-Photorealistic Rendering)

Calligraphy generated using computers


Education science and training
Education & Science and Training keypunch, both in batch

  • Computer Aided Education and Science

    • Computer simulating the phenomenon in biology, geography, physics, chemistry, medicine, political social, economy and other sciences

  • Computer Aided Training

    • System for training of ship captains, aircraft pilots …


Computer graphics in geography
Computer Graphics in Geography keypunch, both in batch

  • Terrain Generation

NMT

Fractal models

Aerial views

Landsat


Google earth
Google Earth keypunch, both in batch


Structure of Protein keypunch, both in batch


Computer aided training
Computer Aided Training keypunch, both in batch


War games keypunch, both in batch


Visualization in scientific computing
Visualization in Scientific Computing keypunch, both in batch

  • Producing graphical representations for scientific, engineering and medical data sets and processes


Application hydrodynamic
Application --- Hydrodynamic keypunch, both in batch

The air current around a car


Application hydrodynamic1
Application --- Hydrodynamic keypunch, both in batch


Application weather
Application --- Weather keypunch, both in batch

The isolines exhibit the distribution of atmospheric pressure

http://www.ssec.wisc.edu/~billh/vis5d.html


Application medical
Application --- Medical keypunch, both in batch

The visible human project


Graphical user interface gui
Graphical User Interface(GUI) keypunch, both in batch

3D operating system


Graphic devices in computer system

Graphic Devices in Computer System keypunch, both in batch


Graphic devices in computer system1
Graphic Devices in Computer System keypunch, both in batch

  • CPU

    • CPU implements all kinds of computations about graphics such as description, construction and modification

  • GPU(Graphic Processing Unit)

  • Video Display Devices

  • Input Devices


Video display devices
Video Display Devices keypunch, both in batch

  • Primary Output Device

    • Cathode ray tube(CRT) based display

    • Liquid-Crystal Display

    • Plasma panels

  • Steroscopic Display

  • Three Dimensional Viewing Devices


Steroscopic viewing devices
Steroscopic Viewing Devices keypunch, both in batch


Three dimensional viewing devices
Three Dimensional Viewing Devices keypunch, both in batch


Three dimensional viewing devices1
Three Dimensional Viewing Devices keypunch, both in batch

  • Transport 3D display system

  • built by Hitachi Human Interaction Laboratory (HHIL)


Graphic devices in computer system2
Graphic Devices in Computer System keypunch, both in batch

  • CPU

  • GPU(Graphic Processing Unit)

  • Video Display Devices: output devices

  • Input Devices


Input devices
Input Devices keypunch, both in batch

  • Primary Input Devices

    • Keyboard, Mouse, Trackball, Spaceball, Joysticks, Digitizers, Light Pen, Scan machine, Touch panel, Voice System

    • Data Gloves, Sensor, Tracker, Force Feedback


3D mouse keypunch, both in batch

Data glove

Force Feedback Device


Important keypunch, both in batchconference:

SIGGRAPH

(Special Interest Group on GRAPHics and Interactive Techniques)


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