The Educational system in Romania
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The Educational system in Romania. The Romanian educational system is based on a tuition-free system.  Access to free education till 18 years old is guaranteed by Article 32 in the  Constitution of Romania.

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The Educational system in Romania

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The Educational system in Romania


  • The Romanian educational system is based on a tuition-free system. 

  • Access to free education till 18 years old is guaranteed by Article 32 in the Constitution of Romania.


  • Compulsory education includes 11 grades. Theoretically, children become pupils at the age of 6 and finish compulsory school at the age of 17.


The structure of the pre-university education is the result of the reform processstarted in the early 90’s and assisted by the EU through

pre-integrationprogrammes.


Romanian educational system includes

  • Pre-school Education

  • Primary Education

  • Lower Secondary Education - gymnazium

  • Higher Secondary Education

  • Post-high school Education

  • Higher Education


VET in Romania

VET is including:

  • Initial VET named TVET

  • Continuing VET named CVT

    TVET is delivred through the formal system and, in the near future, also through apprenticeship schemes by enterprises in cooperation with education and training providers


The structure of TVET system

TVET is developed in the new law at secondary education level containing two alternatives, as follows:

The technological high-school, includes:

  • the lower cycle, namelygrades X-XI, that are leading to acquiring general (non-certificated) competences in a number of domains, part of three profiles: resources, techniques, and services; at the end of the 11th grade , after a practical training stage the students can acquire a professional qualification of level 2 (level 3 EQF)

  • the upper cycle, grades XI – XII, that are leading to level ISCED 3 and professional qualification level 3 level 4 EQF


  • The vocational school, includes:

    • training programmes ( with a duration of 6months-2 years) based on occupational standards conducting to a professional qualification of lower level


The TVET system also includes:

  • The Post-high schools that represent a specialised TVET routeof 1-3 years leading to acquiring certificated competences for vocational qualifications level 3 advanced (level 5 EQF).


TVET profiles

Three major profiles relate to the envisaged trades and specialisations, as follows:

  • Techniques, comprising the fields of mechanics, electromechanical and electrical, electronics and, automation, constructions and civil works, telecommunications, light industry, transports, industrial chemistry, wood processing


  • Services, comprising the fields of tourism and catering, food & beverage, commerce and related services, post, economics and public administration, health and social assistance, as well as other services deserving industry and population

  • Resources, comprising the fields of food industry, forestry, agriculture, agro-tourism, animal breeding and veterinary, environment protection


TVET providers

  • Public vocational and technical education (part of the secondary education) is financed mainly from the public budget.

  • The system includes also private units of all types of schools.

  • Public and private schools are subject to accreditation of programmes, and a quality assurance methodology, which enables TVET schools to produce annual self-assessment reports and improvement plans - subject to external audits.


Institutions having roles in TVET

  • Ministry of Education, Research, Youth and Sport

    • for TVET delivred through education system

  • Ministry of Labour, Family and Social Protection

    • for VET delivred through apprenticeship system and for CVT

  • National Authority for Qualifications, supported by Sectoral Committees, reorganised by unifying National Adult Training Board and National Agency for Qualifications in Higher Education


  • MoERYS- institutional structures involved in TVET

    • National Centre for Evaluation in Pre-university Education

    • National Centre for TVET Development

    • National Agency for Quality Assurance in Pre-university Education- ARACIP

    • Institute of Educational Sciences


    Regional intervention is made predominately by the County School Inspectorates.


    National TVET schools network


    TVET students enrollment within secondary education


    Students enrollment in TVET


    Students enrollment in TVET in rural areas


    Thank you for your attention!


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