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Biosafety: Global Debate on Risks and Socio-Economic Benefits of GE crops Klaus Ammann, University of Bern, Switzerland September 25, 2013 Full plenary talk. The four talking points:

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Biosafety global debate on risks and socio economic benefits of ge crops

Biosafety: Global Debate on Risks and

Socio-Economic Benefits of GE crops

Klaus Ammann, University of Bern, Switzerland

September 25, 2013

Full plenary talk


Biosafety global debate on risks and socio economic benefits of ge crops

  • The four talking points:

  • Regulation too expensive, one of the main reasons: Wrong focus on transgenic Crops: Genomic Misconception: Natural Mutation (ie. Conventional breeding) and Transgenesis are the same on the molecular process level

  • Yield in Agriculture, a mixed Bag with a bright futureClimate Mitigation, towards a better Ag Economy

  • The role of the protest corporates, more science, less propaganda is needed

  • The consequences: Dialogue, Collaboration and Food Prices closer to Production costs: less protectionism and eco-imperialism


Biosafety global debate on risks and socio economic benefits of ge crops

Regulation too expensive, one of the main reasons: Wrong focus on transgenic Crops: Genomic Misconception: Natural Mutation (ie. Conventional breeding) and Transgenesis are the same on the molecular process levelTransgenesis NOT inherently morerisky than conventional breeding


Biosafety global debate on risks and socio economic benefits of ge crops

In the European Union (and the Cartagena Protocol decision making process is too complex, obscure and politically inefficient

The Canadian product oriented regulation

would solve many problems,big obstacle:

Unscientific focus on transgenesis of

most international biosafety laws, including

Cartagena Protocol and European Union.

Ammann, K. (20120706), Genomic Misconception: A fresh look at the biosafety of transgenic and conventional crops, a plea for a process agnostic regulation New Biotechnology, in press, pp. 32, http://www.ask-force.org/web/NewBiotech/Genomic-Misconception-20120706-names-def.pdf


Biosafety global debate on risks and socio economic benefits of ge crops

Ammann Klaus (20130415),

Genomic Misconception. A fresh look at the biosafety regulation of transgenic and conventional crops: a plea for a process of agnostic regulation, open source, final version, in: New Biotechnology, 30, 50 and typeset 17, Ammann K., Neuchatel, http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1871678413000605 AND

http://www.ask-force.org/web/NewBiotech/Genomic-Misconception-20130415-names-links.pdf

AND typeset corrected: http://www.ask-force.org/web/NewBiotech/Ammann-Genomic-Misconception-corrected-final-20130514.pdfAND

German Abstract http://www.ask-force.org/web/NewBiotech/Ammann-German-Abstract-Highlights-20130415.pdf


Biosafety global debate on risks and socio economic benefits of ge crops

Interestingly, naturally occurring molecular evolution,

i.e. the spontaneous generation of genetic variants has

been seen to follow exactly the same three strategies as those used in genetic engineering14. These three strategies are (after W. Arber, Nobel Laureate 1978)

(a) small local changes in the nucleotide sequences,

(b) internal reshuffling of genomic DNA segments, and

(c) acquisition of usually rather small segments of DNA

from another type of organism by horizontal gene transfer.

Arber, W. (1990), 3 Impact of Human Civilization on Biological Evolution in SCOPE 44 - Introduction of Genetically Modified Organisms into the Environment, ed. H. A. B. Mooney, G.,, Vol., pp. COGEN, http://www.scopenvironment.org/downloadpubs/scope44/chapter12.htmlAND http://www.ask-force.org/web/Regulation/Arber-Impact-Human-Civilization-1990.pdf

Arber, W. (2010)

Genetic engineering compared to natural genetic variations. New Biotechnology, 27, 5, pp 517-521

http://www.ask-force.org/web/Vatican-PAS-Studyweek-Elsevier-publ-20101130/Arber-Werner-PAS-Genetic-Engineering-Compared-20101130-publ.pdf


Biosafety global debate on risks and socio economic benefits of ge crops

«However, there is a principal difference between the procedures of genetic engineering and those serving in nature for biological evolution. While the genetic engineer pre-reflects his alteration and verifies its results, nature places its genetic variations more randomly and largely independent of an identified goal.

After ca. 15 years of testing the GM crops are brought to the field by millions in a few years»

Arber, W. (2002)

Roots, strategies and prospects of functional genomics. Current Science, 83, 7, pp 826-828

http://www.botanischergarten.ch/Mutations/Arber-Comparison-2002.pdf

“With respect to biological evolution, recombinant DNA techniques hardly represent entirely new aspects. Leakiness of genetic isolation, spontaneous mutagenesis, and mechanisms to bypass selective forces are known to exist under natural conditions”

Arber, W. (1990), 3 Impact of Human Civilization on Biological Evolution in SCOPE 44 - Introduction of Genetically Modified Organisms into the Environment, ed. H. A. B. Mooney, G.,, Vol., pp. COGEN, http://www.scopenvironment.org/downloadpubs/scope44/chapter12.html AND http://www.ask-force.org/web/Regulation/Arber-Impact-Human-Civilization-1990.pdf


Biosafety global debate on risks and socio economic benefits of ge crops

Arber, W. (2010)

Genetic engineering compared to natural genetic variations. New Biotechnology, 27, 5, pp 517-521

http://www.ask-force.org/web/Vatican-PAS-Studyweek-Elsevier-publ-20101130/Arber-Werner-PAS-Genetic-Engineering-Compared-20101130-publ.pdf


Biosafety global debate on risks and socio economic benefits of ge crops

The spirit of the participants was inspired by the same approach to technology that Benedict XVI expressed in his new Encyclica, in particular that ‘Technology is the objective side of human action, Cf. John Paul II, Encyclical Letter Laborem exercens, 5: loc. cit., 586-589. whose origin and raison d’être is found in the subjective element: the worker himself. For this reason, technology is never merely technology. It reveals man and his aspirations towards development, it expresses the inner tension that impels him gradually to overcome material limitations. Technology, in this sense, is a response to God’s command to till and to keep the land (cf. Gen 2:15) that he has entrusted to humanity, and it must serve to reinforce the covenant between human beings and the environment, a covenant that should mirror God’s creative love’. Caritas in veritate, § 69.


Biosafety global debate on risks and socio economic benefits of ge crops

  • Two recent international conferences on the position of Islam towards modern agriculture yielded positive views:

  • The World Halal Forum 2010 sought to begin discussions on the Islamic stance of Genetically Modified Food.

  • At the end of the workshop panelists and participants unanimously agreed to the a positive statement

  • 2. Sharia Compliance conference 2010 came to the same positive conclusions

  • World Halal Forum (2010)

  • GENETICALLY MODIFIED (GM) CROPS & HALAL WORKSHOP REPORT (eds W.H. Forum), pp. 35. World Halal Forum, Kuala Lumpur Convention Centerwww.worldhalalforum.org AND http://www.ask-force.org/web/Islam/GM-Crops-World-Halal-Forum-Kuala-Lumpur-2010.pdf

  • Sharia Compliance (2010)

  • International Workshop for Islamic Scholars: Agribiotechnology: Shariah Compliance, pp. 7. Members of the Organization of the Islamic Conference (OIC)], Traders Hotel, Georgetown, Penang, Malaysia

  • http://www.ask-force.org/web/Islam/Shariah-Compliance-Agribiotech-Resolution_Final-20101202.pdf


Baudo comparison in genomic disturbance gm crops are less disturbed black dots than classic breeds

Scatter plot representation of transcriptome comparisons, Baudo et al. 2006

Baudo: comparison in genomic disturbance: GM crops are less disturbed (black dots) than classic breeds

transgenic vs.

control

endosperm

14 dpa

28 dpa

8 dpg

Baudo, M.M., Lyons, R., Powers, S., Pastori, G.M., Edwards, K.J., Holdsworth, M.J., & Shewry, P.R. (2006)

Transgenesis Has Less Impact on the Transcriptome of Wheat Grain Than Conventional Breeding. Plant Biotechnology Journal, 4, 4, pp 369-380

http://www.botanischergarten.ch/Organic/Baudo-Impact-2006.pdf

Shewry, P.R. & Jones, H.D. (2005)

Transgenic Wheat: Where Do We Stand after the First 12 Years? Annals of Applied Biology, 147, 1, pp 1-14

http://www.botanischergarten.ch/Organic/Shewry-Performance-2006.pdf

2 conventional

lines

Endosperm

14 dpa

28 dpa

leaf at 8 dpg

transgenic vs.

conventional

Endosperm

14 dpa

28 dpa

leaf at 8 dpg


Radiation breeding as field experiments

Radiation breeding as field experiments

Gamma Field for radiation breeding

100m radius

89 TBq

Co-60 source at the center

Shielding dike 8m high

Better

spaghettis, whisky

1800 new plants

Institute of Radiation Breeding

Ibaraki-ken, JAPAN

http://www.irb.affrc.go.jp/


Biosafety global debate on risks and socio economic benefits of ge crops

Radiation site for mutation breeding, Co-60 radioactivity source of 89 TBq in the center, Radius of 100m.

Gamma Field for Radiation Breeding

Was muss man sichdaruntervorstellen?

89 TBq represents the 140-fold of all Radioactivity of material stored in the German

permanent storage site of Morsleben insgesamt eingelagerten Radioaktivität.

In this radiation field a human being would receive 3 deadly Sievers units

of radiation after the exposure times given below

3,5 min

60 min


Biosafety global debate on risks and socio economic benefits of ge crops

Reuters, May 10, 2010

UN's International Atomic Energy Agency

since 1963, 2,252 new plant varieties,

including Italian durum wheat,

have been created using radioactive substances such as cobalt and X-rays.

70% of the crops under cultivation worldwide are radiation mutation varieties

Charles Margulis of Greenpeace USA:

"But now they tell us that scientists have been artificially hybridizing plants since the 1960s.That's, like, really uncool."


Biosafety global debate on risks and socio economic benefits of ge crops

Activists, supported by Jane Rissler, called for a ban, since those irradiated varieties have never been tested for food safety, which would have wiped out 70% of the food products on shelfs.

Jane Rissler(Union of Concerned Scientists)

“Compared to these plants, genetically modified food is about as dangerous as a one-legged man in an ass-kicking contest.”

But excellent repair mechanisms working like zippers are reducing radiation damage considerably

And worldwide there has been no correlation established between radiation mutation and negative food safety facts. (Reuters 2001 continued)


Biosafety global debate on risks and socio economic benefits of ge crops

FRANKENSTEIN

Durum Wheat, Triticum durum: all major breeds

have gone though

massive and inprecise radiation breeding, but with

Important success

unnecessary fearmongering


Biosafety global debate on risks and socio economic benefits of ge crops

Tzotzos, G. T., G. P. Head and R. Hull (2009), Chapter 6 - Regulatory Frameworks in Genetically Modified Plants, ed., Vol., pp. 147-172 Academic Press, San Diego, http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780123741066000060 AND http://www.ask-force.org/web/Genomics/Tzotzos-Regulatory-Frameworks-2009.pdf


Biosafety global debate on risks and socio economic benefits of ge crops

European Biosafety and the Cartagena Protocol

The biosafety protocol is based on the wrong Premises: See

Genomic Misconception in this slides: Natural Mutation

and transgenesis are the same on the molecular level.

www.strangevehicles.com


Biosafety global debate on risks and socio economic benefits of ge crops

System map of the principal issues, challenges and feedback loops in the risk management component of the legislation

EPEC-SANCO (2011)

Evaluation of the EU legislative framework in the field of cultivation of GMOs under Directive 2001/18/EC and Regulation (EC) No 1829/2003, and the placing on the market of GMOs as or in products under Directive 2001/18/EC Final Report, pp. 137. European Commission DG Sanco

http://ec.europa.eu/food/food/biotechnology/evaluation/docs/gmo_cultivation_report_en.pdf


Biosafety global debate on risks and socio economic benefits of ge crops

Undue delays in Europe for the approval of GM crops, status November 5, 2012

http://www.europabio.org/sites/default/files/44_years_of_delays_in_the_eu_approval_of_gm_products_europabio.pdf


Biosafety global debate on risks and socio economic benefits of ge crops

BRUSSELS | Wed Jul 17, 2013 4:45pm EDT

BRUSSELS (Reuters) - Monsanto Co said on Wednesday it will withdraw all pending approval requests to grow new types of genetically modified crops in the European Union, due to the lack of commercial prospects for cultivation there.

"Madero said the decision would allow the company to focus on growing its conventional seeds business in Europe, as well as securing EU approvals to import its genetically modified crop varieties widely grown in the United States and South America.


Biosafety global debate on risks and socio economic benefits of ge crops

Innovation in agbiotech. (a) Location and sector of organizations conducting R&D for the 558 transgenic product quality innovations identified. Private sector consists of corporate and privately held firms. Public sector consists of government research laboratories, universities and nonprofit research institutes. (b) Annual entry, exit and the numbers of innovations active in the R&D pipeline were calculated from observations of the 558 innovations tracked in the primary survey. The number of active innovations stopped growing in 1998, after which those new innovations that entered were more likely to be published and less likely to move toward commercialization. Fig.1 from (Graff et al., 2009b).

Graff, G.D., Zilberman, D., & Bennett, A.B. (2009)

The contraction of Ag-biotech product quality innovation. Nature Biotechnology, 27, 8, pp 702-704

http://www.botanischergarten.ch/Regulation/Graff-Contraction-Agbiotech-Innovation-2009.pdf


Biosafety global debate on risks and socio economic benefits of ge crops

One of the main reasons for the regulatory stall and the difficult innovation climate in modern Agrivculture in Europe:

the Genomic Misconception

Natural Mutation (ie. Conventional breeding) and Transgenesis (i.e. GM crops) are the same on the molecular process level

Giddings, V., I. Potrykus, Ammann K. and N. Fedoroff (2012), Confronting the Gordian knot, Opinion, Nature Biotechnology, 30, 3, pp. 208-209, http://www.nature.com/nbt/journal/v30/n3/abs/nbt.2145.html AMD http://www.ask-force.org/web/Regulation/Giddings-Confronting-Gordian-Knot-2012.pdf AND Editorial A. Marshall http://www.ask-force.org/web/Genomics/Marshall-Agnostic-About-Agriculture-2012.pdf

Ammann, K. (20120706), Genomic Misconception: A fresh look at the biosafety of transgenic and conventional crops, a plea for a process agnostic regulation New Biotechnology, in press, pp. 32, http://www.ask-force.org/web/NewBiotech/Genomic-Misconception-20120706-names-def.pdf


Biosafety global debate on risks and socio economic benefits of ge crops

The time has come for the scientific community to advance a new generation of international organizations that expressly promote scientific cooperation — agencies that can help foster technological cooperation for Africa’s economic transformation.

Juma, C. (2011) The New Harvest: Agricultural Innovation in Africa Preprint 3 Chapters Oxford University Press (14. Januar 2011) IS: ISBN-10: 0199783195 ISBN-13: 978-0199783199, pp 296

http://www.ask-force.org/web/Developing/Juma-Governing-Innovation-2011.pdf and http://www.ask-force.org/web/Developing/Juma-Growing-Economy-Ch-1-2011.pdf and http://www.ask-force.org/web/Developing/Juma-Introduction-2011.pdf AND https://www.amazon.de/New-Harvest-Agricultural-Innovation-Africa/dp/0199783195/ref=sr_1_1?ie=UTF8&qid=1320909861&sr=8-1

Juma, C. (2011)

Preventing hunger: Biotechnology is key. Nature, 479, 7374, pp 471-472

http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/479471a AND http://www.ask-force.org/web/Developing/Juma-Preventing-Hunger-Nature-2011.pdf

Juma, C. (2011)

Science Meets Farming in Africa. Science, 334, 6061, pp 1323

http://www.sciencemag.org/content/334/6061/1323.short AND http://www.ask-force.org/web/Developing/Juma-Science-Meets-Africa-20111209.pdf


Biosafety global debate on risks and socio economic benefits of ge crops

2. Yield in Agriculture, a mixed bag

with a bright future.

climate mitigation, towards a better Ag Economy


Biosafety global debate on risks and socio economic benefits of ge crops

Europe is trailing in yield since 1990


In the us maize yields have accelerated in the last ten years due to modern breeding methods

  • actual breeding plus cultural practice gain

Source: March 2006. Crop Science. Ref# 46:528-543

In the US maize yields have accelerated in the last ten years due to modern breeding methods


Biosafety global debate on risks and socio economic benefits of ge crops

http://www.ers.usda.gov/amber-waves/2013-may/research-raises-agricultural-productivity-in-sub-saharan-africa.aspx#.Uj1t5KZBval


Biosafety global debate on risks and socio economic benefits of ge crops

Royal-Society (2009), Reaping the benefits: science and the sustainable intensification of global agriculture, Royal Socienty, No. 11/09, pp. 89, London, AND http://www.ask-force.org/web/Benefits/RS-Reaping-the-Benefits-200910.pdf

Ammann, K. (20120620), Chapter 27: Advancing the cause in emerging economies in Successful Agricultural Innovation in Emerging Economies, ed. Bennett David and Jennings Richard, Vol., pp. 27 Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, http://www.ask-force.org/web/CUP-Success-GM-crops/Ammann-Advancing-Cause-Emerging-20120802.pdf


Biosafety global debate on risks and socio economic benefits of ge crops

Food Crises and Political Instability in North Africa and the Middle East

Time dependence of FAO Food Price Index from January 2004 to May 2011. Red dashed vertical lines correspond to beginning dates of \food riots" and protests associated with the major recent unrest in North Africa and the Middle East. The overall death toll is reported in parentheses [26{55]. Blue vertical line indicates the date, December 13, 2010, on which we submitted a report to the U.S. government, warning of the link between food prices, social unrest and political instability [56]. Inset shows FAO Food Price Index from 1990 to 2011.

LagiMarco, K. Z. B., Yaneer Bar-Yam, (2011), The Food Crises and Political Instability in North Africa and the Middle East, Physics and Society (physics.soc-ph), NECSI 2011-07-01, pp. 15, arXiv:1108.2455v1 AND http://www.ask-force.org/web/Yield/Lagi-Food-Crises-Political-Instability-2011.pdf

Slavo Mac (20110824)

Complexity Theorists Predict Food Crisis, Riots and Civil Unrest By April 2013. In SHTFplan.com http://www.shtfplan.com/forecasting/complexity-theorists-predict-food-crisis-riots-and-civil-unrest-by-april-2013_08242011


Biosafety global debate on risks and socio economic benefits of ge crops

FAO Price Index at current prices (black) and constant prices (blue)

Time dependence of FAO Price Index at current prices (upper black curve) and constant prices (corrected for ination, lower blue curve) from January 2004 to May 2011. Red dashed vertical lines correspond to beginning dates of food riots and events associated with the major recent unrest in North Africa and the Middle East. Black and blue horizontal lines represent the price threshold above which riots are ignited in current and constant prices respectively. Index backgrounds are tted with a third-order polynomial; intersection with the threshold (July 2012 at current prices, August 2013 at prices corrected for world ination, [65]) represents the point of instability.

LagiMarco, K. Z. B., Yaneer Bar-Yam, (2011), The Food Crises and Political Instability in North Africa and the Middle East, Physics and Society (physics.soc-ph), NECSI 2011-07-01, pp. 15, arXiv:1108.2455v1 AND http://www.ask-force.org/web/Yield/Lagi-Food-Crises-Political-Instability-2011.pdf

Slavo Mac (20110824)

Complexity Theorists Predict Food Crisis, Riots and Civil Unrest By April 2013. In SHTFplan.com http://www.shtfplan.com/forecasting/complexity-theorists-predict-food-crisis-riots-and-civil-unrest-by-april-2013_08242011


Biosafety global debate on risks and socio economic benefits of ge crops

Galvao, A. and Celeres (20100809), Celeres, Biotechnology Report 2010, Celeres, No. pp. 7, Uberlandia, MattoGrosso,

http://www.ask-force.org/web/Brazil/Celeres-Brazil-Biotechnology-Report-2010.pdfAND http://www.celeres.com.br/1/english/index.html


Biosafety global debate on risks and socio economic benefits of ge crops

Mercosur consolidates as leading soybean region with 52% of world’s production

Argentina, Brazil, Paraguay, Uruguay and Bolivia harvest 136 million tons annually, compared to the 83 from the United States and the world’s 260 million tons (2011)

http://en.mercopress.com/2011/09/17/mercosur-consolidates-as-leading-soybean-region-with-52-of-world-s-production


Biosafety global debate on risks and socio economic benefits of ge crops

It is wrong to blame all mishap with

GM crops to Genetic Engineering

See a typical debate between scientists on this topic:

Broer, I., R. J. Busch, C. Jung, F. Ordon, M. Qaim, B. Reinhold-Hurek, U. Sonnewald, A. von Tiedemann, C. Moehring, P. Schmitz-Moeller and Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (2009), GrueneGentechnik, Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft, No. ISBN 978-3-527-32857-4, pp. 56, http://www.botanischergarten.ch/Regulation/DFG-Broschuer-Gruene-Gentechnik-2009.pdf

Taube, F., M. Krawinkel, A. Susenbeth and W. Theobald (2011), The booklet "Genetically modified crops" published from the German Research Foundation, does not meet the given claim Environmental Sciences Europe, 23, 1, pp. 1, http://www.enveurope.com/content/23/1/1 AND

http://www.ask-force.org/web/Regulation/Taube-DFG-Genuegt-Nicht-2011.pdf

Broer, I., C. Jung, F. Ordon, M. Qaim, B. Reinhold-Hurek, U. Sonnewald and A. von Tiedemann (2011), Response to the criticism by Taube et al. in ESE 23:1, 2011, on the booklet "Green Genetic Engineering" published by the German Research Foundation (DFG) Environmental Sciences Europe, 23, 1, pp. 16, http://www.enveurope.com/content/23/1/16 AND http://www.ask-force.org/web/Regulation/Broer-Stellungsname-DFG-2011.pdf

Draft Summary of the Glyphosate Debate

Ammann, K. (20130915), Glyphosate Information, a Selection, draft September 15, 2013, in: ASK-FORCE AF-15, Klaus Ammann, Neuchatel, http://www.ask-force.org/web/AF-15-Glyphosate/Ammann-AF-15-Glyphosate-Information-20130915.pdf


Biosafety global debate on risks and socio economic benefits of ge crops

Development of resistant weeds

with herbicide use


Biosafety global debate on risks and socio economic benefits of ge crops

Fig. 2. Relationship between nsecticide use and crop losses with and without Bt technology.Curves are predictions based on econometric estimation of a logistic damage-control function. See table S1 for details and results of the estimation procedure.Data was obtained from

2001 trials.

Qaim, M. & Zilberman, D. (2003)

Yield effects of genetically modified crops in developing countries. Science, 299, 5608, pp 900-902

http://www.ask-force.org/web/BioEconomy/Qaim-Zilberman-Yield-Effects-2003.pdf AND

http://www.ask-force.org/web/BioEconomy/Qaim-Zilberman-Yield-Effects-supplements-2003.pdf


Biosafety global debate on risks and socio economic benefits of ge crops

Figure 2. Relationship between insecticide use and crop losses with and without Bt technology.

Curves are predictions based on econometric estimation of a logistic damage-control function.

See table S1 for details and results of the estimation procedure. Data was obtained from 2001 trials

Qaim, M. & Zilberman, D. (2003)

Yield effects of genetically modified crops in developing countries. Science, 299, 5608, pp 900-902

<Go to ISI>://WOS:000180830900055 AND http://www.ask-force.org/web/BioEconomy/Qaim-Zilberman-Yield-Effects-2003.pdf AND http://www.ask-force.org/web/BioEconomy/Qaim-Zilberman-Yield-Effects-supplements-2003.pdf


Biosafety global debate on risks and socio economic benefits of ge crops

Herring, R.J. & Rao Chandrasekhara N. (2012)

On the ‘Failure of Bt Cotton’, Analysing a Decade of Experience. Economic and Political Weekly, XLVII, 18, pp 45-53

http://epw.in/epw/uploads/articles/17418.pdf AND

http://www.ask-force.org/web/Cotton/Herring-Rao-Failure-Bt-Cotton-Analysis-2012.pdf


Average cotton yields 1980 2007

Average cotton yields 1980-2007

  • Gruère Guillaume P., Mehta-Bhatt Purvi, & Debdatta Sengupta (2008)

    • Bt Cotton and Farmer Suicides in India Reviewing the Evidence, IFPRI Discussion Paper 00808, Environment and Production Technology Division pp 64 IFPRI Discussion Paper 00808 Washington (Report)

    • http://www.botanischergarten.ch/Cotton/Gruere-IFPRIDP200810.pdf AND http://www.ifpri.org/pubs/dp/IFPRIDP00808.pdf


Biosafety global debate on risks and socio economic benefits of ge crops

Gruere Guillaume P., Mehta-Bhatt Purvi and Debdatta Sengupta (2008), Bt Cotton and Farmer Suicides in India Reviewing the Evidence, IFPRI Discussion Paper 00808, Environment and Production Technology Division, No. pp. 64, Washington, http://www.botanischergarten.ch/Cotton/Gruere-IFPRIDP200810.pdfAND http://www.ifpri.org/pubs/dp/IFPRIDP00808.pdf AND http://www.botanischergarten.ch/Cotton/Gruere-Farmer-Suicides-Slides-2008.pdf AND http://www.botanischergarten.ch/Cotton/Gruere-Farmer-Suicides-Slides-2008.ppt


Biosafety global debate on risks and socio economic benefits of ge crops

  • The role of the Protest CorporatesAppeal to basic fear instincts of population,making out of this good business: Income ofGreenpeace 2010 confirmed 62mio Euro

  • we demand more science, less propaganda


  • Biosafety global debate on risks and socio economic benefits of ge crops

    http://www.aljazeera.com/indepth/opinion/2013/03/201332813553729250.html


    Bullshit award for vandana shiva

    Bullshit award for Vandana Shiva


    Biosafety global debate on risks and socio economic benefits of ge crops

    • Greenpeace

    • Billboard Campaign in Brussels

    • according to Filip Cnudde

    • 32 500 euros/week (this price doesnt include the making of the poster, only the poster campaign)

    • + 995 euros (taxes)

    • 300 billboards (of which 195 billboards are around subway entrances).


    Biosafety global debate on risks and socio economic benefits of ge crops

    http://gmopundit.blogspot.ch/2013/03/the-greenwar-chronicles-part-43.html

    Greenpeace destroys scientific

    field trial in Australia 2012 from CSRIO


    Biosafety global debate on risks and socio economic benefits of ge crops

    Forgot what we are

    protesting

    We are programmed in

    millions of years of evolution to be

    alarmed and

    act accordingly

    What helps:

    Constant

    framing

    And moral self-

    licensing

    Merritt, A.C., Effron, D.A., & Monin, B. (2010)

    Moral Self-Licensing: When Being Good Frees Us to Be Bad. Social and Personality Psychology Compass, 4, 5, pp 344-357

    http://www.ask-force.org/web/Fundamentalists/Merritt-Moral-Self-Licensing-2010.pdf

    http://www.nearlygood.com/


    Biosafety global debate on risks and socio economic benefits of ge crops

    Duke, S.O. & Powles, S. (2009)

    Glyphosate-Resistant Crops and Weeds: Now and in the Future. AgBioForum, 12, 3&4, pp 346-357

    http://www.botanischergarten.ch/HerbizideTol/Duke-Glyphosate-Now-Future-AgBioforum-2009.pdf


    Biosafety global debate on risks and socio economic benefits of ge crops

    Help Fundamentalists,

    Donate Brain


    Biosafety global debate on risks and socio economic benefits of ge crops

    the myth

    of

    naturalness

    Sunflowers, Helianthus annuus cultivar, one of the most artificial horticultural plants as a symbol for the political party of the greens from Germany: Bündnis 90, DIE GRÜNEN. http://gruene-senden.de/schlagzeilen/archiv.html


    Biosafety global debate on risks and socio economic benefits of ge crops

    http://climateshiftproject.org/wp-content/uploads/2013/03/Greenpeace.png


    Biosafety global debate on risks and socio economic benefits of ge crops

    http://www.ask-force.org/web/Greenpeace/USA-Greenpeace-Report-Growing_Out_of_Poverty-2011.pdf


    Biosafety global debate on risks and socio economic benefits of ge crops

    Marris, E. (2006)

    Environmental activism: In the name of nature. Nature, 443, 7111, pp 498-501

    http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/443498a AND http://www.botanischergarten.ch/Discourse/Marris-In-the-Name-of-Nature-2006.pdf


    Biosafety global debate on risks and socio economic benefits of ge crops

    Ingo Potrykus,

    Prof. em. ETHZ

    Inventor of Golden Rice

    Time Magazine Cover July 31, 2000

    (not published in the in the European edition)

    the original Times Magazine article:

    http://www.ask-force.org/web/Golden-Rice/Robinson-Times-Mag-Grains-Hope-20000731.PDF


    Biosafety global debate on risks and socio economic benefits of ge crops

    After 13 years of product development:

    40 grams of Golden Rice a day can save life and sight.


    Biosafety global debate on risks and socio economic benefits of ge crops

    http://www.greenpeace.org/eastasia/campaigns/food-agriculture/science/ge-crop-research/

    Website location of downloaded

    Propaganda lie

    13. 9. 2013

    To demonstrate the exaggerated claims of the GE industry, a Greenpeace volunteer is served the cooked equivalent of 3.7 kilos of mock Golden Rice, the amount needed to get the required daily intake of Vitamin A.


    Biosafety global debate on risks and socio economic benefits of ge crops

    https://twitter.com/DanGraur/status/381103280689934336/photo/1


    Biosafety global debate on risks and socio economic benefits of ge crops

    http://allowgoldenricenow.org/images/vancouver-11th.jpg


    Biosafety global debate on risks and socio economic benefits of ge crops

    Genepeace,

    Not Greenpeace


    Biosafety global debate on risks and socio economic benefits of ge crops

    van de Wouw, M., van Hintum, T., Kik, C., van Treuren, R., & Visser, B. (2010)

    Genetic diversity trends in twentieth century crop cultivars: a meta analysis. TAG Theoretical and Applied Genetics, 120, 6, pp 1241-1252

    http://www.botanischergarten.ch/Biotech-Biodiv/van-de-Wouw-Genetic-Diversity-Trends-2010.pdf


    Biosafety global debate on risks and socio economic benefits of ge crops

    Fig. 4 Wheat genetic diversity (a) and crop genetic diversity (excluding wheat) (b) in the twentieth century based on a weighted meta analysis of 20 publications. The diversity in the decade with the lowest diversity was set to 100

    Ammann, K. (20120317)

    Biodiversity and the debate on GM crops - Can GM crops help to enhance biodiversity? . In ASK-FORCE AF-11, Vol. AF-11, pp. 103. K. Ammann, Neuchâtelhttp://www.ask-force.org/web/AF-11-Biodiversity/AF-11-Biodiversity-Biotechnology-20120317-numbered.doc

    http://www.ask-force.org/web/AF-11-Biodiversity/AF-11-Biodiversity-Biotechnology-20120317-web.doc

    http://www.ask-force.org/web/AF-11-Biodiversity/AF-11-Biodiversity-Biotechnology-20120317-web.pdf

    http://www.ask-force.org/web/AF-11-Biodiversity/AF-11-Biodiversity-Biotechnology-20120317-opensource.doc

    http://www.ask-force.org/web/AF-11-Biodiversity/AF-11-Biodiversity-Biotechnology-20120317-opensource.pdf


    Biosafety global debate on risks and socio economic benefits of ge crops

    A Century Ago

    In 1930 commercial seed houses offered hundreds of varieties as shown in this sampling of ten crops

    80 Years Later By 1983 few of those varieties were found in the National Seed Storage Laboratory

    Source: National Geographic, July 2011

    with completely

    wrong numbers

    based on the old RAFI study

    Fowler, C. & Mooney, P., R., (1990) US: Shattering : food, politics, and the loss of genetic diversity GB: The threatened gene: Food, politics and the loss of genetic diversity US: The University of Arizona PressGB: Lutterworth Press P.O. Box 60 Cambridge CB12NTPrinted Billing & Sons Ltd, Worcester, US: Tucson GB: Cambridge, IS: ISBN 0 7188 2830 5. , pp xvi, 278 p

    http://www.amazon.com/gp/product/0816511810/sr=1-1/qid=1320748094/ref=olp_product_details?ie=UTF8&me=&qid=1320748094&sr=1-1&seller= AND from the etc Group: http://www.ask-force.org/web/Biotech-Biodiv/Fowler-Mooney-The-threatened-Gene-1990.pdf


    Biosafety global debate on risks and socio economic benefits of ge crops

    Heald, P.J. & Chapman, S. (2011)

    Veggie Tales: Pernicious Myths About Patents, Innovation, and Crop Diversity in the Twentieth Century. SSRN eLibrary, pp

    http://www.ask-force.org/web/IP/Heldt-Veggie-Tales-Pernicious-Myths-2011.pdf


    Biosafety global debate on risks and socio economic benefits of ge crops

    Heald, P.J. & Chapman, S. (2011)

    Veggie Tales: Pernicious Myths About Patents, Innovation, and Crop Diversity in the Twentieth Century. SSRN eLibrary, pp

    http://www.ask-force.org/web/IP/Heldt-Veggie-Tales-Pernicious-Myths-2011.pdf


    Biosafety global debate on risks and socio economic benefits of ge crops

    The consequences: Stop the propaganda and trade wars, it is dialogue, listening to advanced countrieslike Brazil, Australia, USA, collaboration and free trade which will bring European agriculture forward


    Biosafety global debate on risks and socio economic benefits of ge crops

    Urban Myth

    Organic Farming and Modern

    Agriculture including Genetic Engineering

    cannot go together

    Wrong:

    Organic farming needs crops

    adapted to the special needs of agro-ecology

    by modern biotechnological methods


    Biosafety global debate on risks and socio economic benefits of ge crops

    Why high tech farmers should adopt Organic

    management

    Ammann, K. (2008)

    Feature: Integrated farming: Why organic farmers should use transgenic crops, open source citations. New Biotechnology, 25, 2, pp 101 - 107

    http://www.botanischergarten.ch/NewBiotech/Ammann-Opinion-Integrated-Farming-20080825-names-links-edited.pdf

    Ammann, K. (2009)

    Feature: Why farming with high tech methods should integrate elements of organic agriculture. accepted, corrected proof, open links. New Biotechnology, 4, pp

    http://www.botanischergarten.ch/NewBiotech/Integrated-Farming-Biotech-Org-20090803-openlink.pdf


    Biosafety global debate on risks and socio economic benefits of ge crops

    Ronald, P.C. & Adamchak, R.W. (2008)

    Tomorrow's Table: Organic Farming, Genetics, and the Future of Food Oxford University Press, USA (April 18, 2008) IS: ISBN-10: 0195301757 ISBN-13: 978-0195301755 pp 232

    Book review by J. Gressel 2009 http://www.botanischergarten.ch/Gressel-Book-Ronald-2009.pdf


    Biosafety global debate on risks and socio economic benefits of ge crops

    Amish farmers in biotech-debate: subsequent partial adoption

    of transgenic crops: 1999, see:

    http://www.ifpri.org/2020conference/PDF/summary_ammann.pdf


    Biosafety global debate on risks and socio economic benefits of ge crops

    Ammann, K. (20120620), Chapter 27: Advancing the cause in emerging economies in Successful Agricultural Innovation in Emerging Economies, ed. Bennett David and Jennings Richard, Vol., pp. 27 Cambridge University Press, Cambridge,

    http://www.ask-force.org/web/CUP-Success-GM-crops/Ammann-Advancing-Cause-Emerging-20120802.pdfAND http://xa.yimg.com/kq/groups/18208928/948211079/name/BENNETTJENNINGS-AGRICULTURE.pdf


    Biosafety global debate on risks and socio economic benefits of ge crops

    Reed, M. S., E. D. G. Fraser and A. J. Dougill (2006), An adaptive learning process for developing and applying sustainability indicators with local communities Ecological Economics, 59, 4, pp. 406-418,

    http://www.ask-force.org/web/Sustainability/Reed-Adaptive-Learning-Process-2006.pdf


    Biosafety global debate on risks and socio economic benefits of ge crops

    http://www.ask-force.org/web/Discourse/Huggins-Econpragmatists-Ecopragmatists-PERC-2013.pdfn


    Biosafety global debate on risks and socio economic benefits of ge crops

    The world has seldom seen a greater discrepancy between the inherent hazard of a product and the level of regulatory burden imposed on it than exists today for crops improved through biotech. It is important, here, to be very clear:

    There is no basis in science for regulation specific to crops and foods improved through biotech or ‘GMOs‘.

    Giddings, V., Potrykus, I., Ammann K., & Fedoroff, N. (2012)

    Confronting the Gordian knot, Opinion. Nature Biotechnology, 30, 3, pp 208-209

    http://www.ask-force.org/web/Regulation/Giddings-Confronting-Gordian-Knot-2012.pdf AND Editorial A. Marshall http://www.ask-force.org/web/Genomics/Marshall-Agnostic-About-Agriculture-2012.pdf


    Biosafety global debate on risks and socio economic benefits of ge crops

    The time has come for the scientific community to advance a new generation of international organizations that expressly promote scientific ccooperation — agencies that can help foster technological cooperation for Africa’s economic transformation.

    Juma, C. (2011) The New Harvest: Agricultural Innovation in Africa Preprint 3 Chapters Oxford University Press (14. Januar 2011) IS: ISBN-10: 0199783195 ISBN-13: 978-0199783199, pp 296

    http://www.ask-force.org/web/Developing/Juma-Governing-Innovation-2011.pdf and http://www.ask-force.org/web/Developing/Juma-Growing-Economy-Ch-1-2011.pdf and http://www.ask-force.org/web/Developing/Juma-Introduction-2011.pdf AND https://www.amazon.de/New-Harvest-Agricultural-Innovation-Africa/dp/0199783195/ref=sr_1_1?ie=UTF8&qid=1320909861&sr=8-1

    Juma, C. (2011)

    Preventing hunger: Biotechnology is key. Nature, 479, 7374, pp 471-472

    http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/479471a AND http://www.ask-force.org/web/Developing/Juma-Preventing-Hunger-Nature-2011.pdf

    Juma, C. (2011)

    Science Meets Farming in Africa. Science, 334, 6061, pp 1323

    http://www.sciencemag.org/content/334/6061/1323.short AND http://www.ask-force.org/web/Developing/Juma-Science-Meets-Africa-20111209.pdf


    Biosafety global debate on risks and socio economic benefits of ge crops

    http://www.desicolours.com/leonardo-da-vinci-quotes-1280x1024-wallpapers/19/03/2011

    Although nature commences with reason and ends in experience it is necessary for us to do the opposite, that is to commence with experience and from this to proceed to investigate the reason. Leonardo da Vinci

    http://www.brainyquote.com/quotes/authors/l/leonardo_da_vinci.html#ixzz1g8w6PNQO


    Biosafety global debate on risks and socio economic benefits of ge crops

    The acceptance/rejection of new biotechnologies is highly dependent on the way we perceive nature, the way we understand our place in nature, and how these impact upon the way people draw the boundaries between what is natural and unnatural.

    Result on a broad survey on the acceptance of

    Green Biotechnology in New Zealand

    Coyle, F., J.,, Maslin, C., Fairweather, J., F.,, & Hunt, L., M., (2003)

    Public Understandings of Biotechnology in New Zealand: Nature, Clean Green Image and Spirituality Lincoln University. ISSN 1170-7682

    ISBN 0-909042-XX-X pp 1-132 Studies in Innovation and Change, Research Report No. 265 November 2003 Canterbury, New Zealand (Report)

    http://www.lincoln.ac.nz/Documents/612_RR265FC_s2661.pdf AND http://www.ask-force.org/web/Discourse/Coyle-Public-Understanding-Biotechnology-2003.pdf


    Biosafety global debate on risks and socio economic benefits of ge crops

    Interest in “evolution” was waning when “DNA” came along (Fig. 5F).

    Michel, J.-B., Shen, Y.K., Aiden, A.P., Veres, A., Gray, M.K., Team, T.G.B., Pickett, J.P., Hoiberg, D., Clancy, D., Norvig, P., Orwant, J., Pinker, S., Nowak, M.A., & Aiden, E.L. (2010)

    Quantitative Analysis of Culture Using Millions of Digitized Books. Science, 331, 6014, pp 176-182

    http://www.ask-force.org/web/Scientometrics/Michel-Quantitavive-Analysis-Culture-2010.pdf

    AND http://www.ask-force.org/web/Scientometrics/Michel.SOM.revision.2-20110311.pdf


    Biosafety global debate on risks and socio economic benefits of ge crops

    Michel, J.-B., Shen, Y.K., Aiden, A.P., Veres, A., Gray, M.K., Team, T.G.B., Pickett, J.P., Hoiberg, D., Clancy, D., Norvig, P., Orwant, J., Pinker, S., Nowak, M.A., & Aiden, E.L. (2010)

    Quantitative Analysis of Culture Using Millions of Digitized Books. Science, 331, 6014, pp 176-182

    http://www.ask-force.org/web/Scientometrics/Michel-Quantitavive-Analysis-Culture-2010.pdf

    AND http://www.ask-force.org/web/Scientometrics/Michel.SOM.revision.2-20110311.pdf


    Biosafety global debate on risks and socio economic benefits of ge crops

    Quental, N. & Lourenco, J.M. (2012)

    References, authors, journals and scientific disciplines underlying the sustainable development literature: a citation analysis. Scientometrics, 90, 2, pp 361-381

    http://www.ask-force.org/web/Overpopulation/Quental-References-Authors-Citation-Analysis-2012.pdf


    Biosafety global debate on risks and socio economic benefits of ge crops

    Field Destructions 2001 to 2009 in Germany (No of field destructions in DE: other criminal actions in orange, field destructions in green)

    Stand 15.09.2009

    * Sonstige Straftaten:Sachbeschädigung

    an Gebäuden, Maschinen, etc.

    The opponents of GM crops have lost their compas and their arguments, they

    do not shy away from violence anymore, also Greenpeace is involved in violent activities

    Da Silva, W. (2011)

    In Focus: the sad, sad demise of Greenpeace In Cosmos, Vol. Thursday, July 14, 2011. About Luna Media Pty Ltd, the boutique publishing company behind COSMOS, Sidney, Australia http://www.vision6.com.au/em/mail/view.php?id=1786158080&a=8123&k=998b861 AND http://www.cosmosmagazine.com/blog/4523/the-sad-sad-demise-greenpeace AND http://www.ask-force.org/web/Field-Destruction/Da-Silva-Sad-Demise-Greenpeace-COSMOS-20110715.pdf

    Kuntz, M. (2011)

    Academic and governmental research on GMOs has been the target of numerous acts of vandalism in Europe. In OGM, environnement, santé et politique. Prof. Marcel Kuntz, Grenoble http://www.marcel-kuntz-ogm.fr/article-news-55055856.html, news in English, French and Spanish AND http://ddata.over-blog.com/xxxyyy/1/39/38/37/public-research-vandalized.pdf AND http://www.marcel-kuntz-ogm.fr/article-news-55055856.html AND http://www.ask-force.org/web/Field-Destruction/Kuntz-Public-Government-Research-Vandalism-Europe-2011.pdf


    Biosafety global debate on risks and socio economic benefits of ge crops

    The Euro-Bills are made out of transgenic Bt - cotton

    bye bye Heliotis

    bye bye pesticides

    Percentage GM cotton

    in the USA

    Bt-toxin may be hazardous to your health,

    don‘t swallow and keep away from children


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