quranic grammar as sarf morphology of the words lesson 13
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QURANIC GRAMMAR AS-SARF “Morphology of the words” Lesson 13. Lessons from the book MABADE” ALA’RABIYAH – basics of Arabic Grammar RASHEED SHARTOONI Compiled by: Sheikh Safdar Razi Ali. 19- A noun ending with SAHEEH or GHAYR SAHEEH letter.

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quranic grammar as sarf morphology of the words lesson 13

QURANIC GRAMMAR AS-SARF“Morphology of the words”Lesson 13

Lessons from the book

MABADE” ALA’RABIYAH –

basics of Arabic Grammar

RASHEED SHARTOONI

Compiled by: Sheikh Safdar Razi Ali

19 a noun ending with saheeh or ghayr saheeh letter
19- A noun ending with SAHEEH or GHAYR SAHEEH letter

From the aspect of a noun ending with an ALIF or not, is divided into sound (SAHEEH) and unsound (GHAYR SAHEEH)

SAHEEH ends with any regular consonant letter RAJOL(UN) (رجالٌ)

GHAYR SAHEEH is a noun which ends with certain types of ALIF or YAA: MAQSOOR, MANQOOS and MAMDOOD.

maqs r mamd d and manq s nouns
MAQSŪR, MAMDŪD, AND MANQŪS NOUNS

A maqsūrمقصورnoun is a noun that ends in an alif. The alif can either be:

A. long, , for example: عصا (cane)

B. short maqsūrah, for example: فتیَ (young man)

Ends with double FATHAA (TANWEEN) in all the grammatical positions ( DHAMMA, FATHAH, KASRAH are implicit because of the inability to be pronounced)

For example: فتیًجاءَ(a young man came), فتیًرأيتُ(I saw a young man),

and بفتیًمَرَرتُ(I passed by a young man)

A mamdūd ممدودnoun: is a noun that ends with a hamzah preceded by an alif. For example: سماء(sky). (takes the three grammatical signs)

A manqūs منقوصnoun is a noun that ends with a yā’ preceded by a kasrah. For example: القاضي(judge).

A manqūs noun takes the grammatical signs as follows:

A. Does not take DHAMMA and KASRAH instead the yā’ is erased and the letter before YAA takes the double KASRAH. For example: قاضٍجاءَ(a judge came). (if Article AL is prefixed then the DHAMMAH and KASRAH, both are implicit due to the heaviness in the pronunciation).

B. Takes double FATHA as a regular noun, (except in few cases which will be studied in grammar) For example: قاضياًرأيتُ(I saw a judge).

source of maqsoor noun
Source of MAQSOOR noun
  • A maqsūr noun derived from the following four scales of a defective verb (ends with a vowel letter)
  • First, when it is in the form أفعَل indicating a color, defect, character, or the superlative/comparative case, عمي (A’MEYA)=:الأعمىَ .
  • Second, in nouns of time and place and mīmī infinitives which ends with a vowel as mentioned previously, for example: .المَرمیَ
  • Third, in the plural of the form فِعلَة , for حلية=الحِلیَ .
  • Fourth, the infinitive of the intransitive form فَعِلَ (FAE’LA) رضي, = الرِّضَیَ
source of mamdood noun
Source of MAMDOOD noun
  • A mamdūd noun stems from a defective noun (ends with a vowel letter) in five cases:
  • First, in infinitives of verbs with increase letters, for example: أعطى =الإعطاء
  • Second, what is formed from the infinitives in the form تأساء =أسا (condolence feeling sorry).
  • Third, the amplified form فَعَّال , for example: بَطَّاء .
  • Fourth, the form فِعَال which is made plural in the form أفعِلَة , أغطية(covers) = غطاء .
  • Fifth, the infinitives of the form فَعَلَ of verbs which indicate sound or sickness, for example:.بكى =البكاء (cried)
  • A mamdūd noun stems from a sound verb (does not end with a vowel letter) in the female form of أفعَل indicating a color, for example: الحَمرَاء .
  • All other mamdūd nouns do not have grammatical rules (SOMAE’YAH) , for example: .الأناء (dish) ,السماء
notes on the manqoos and mamdood noun
Notes on the MANQOOS and MAMDOOD noun

Dubaiدبي is not from MANQOOS because the letter before YAA does not have KASRAH

لبناني Lebnani is not MANQOOS because the YAA at the end is not original (relating YAA)

MAMDOOD:

There are four types of rules for HAMZAH in MAMDOOD regarding the TANWEEN (double vowel signs):

Original ابتداء (Can have TANWEEN)

converted from YAA or WOW سماء (TANWEEN :Yes)

Suffix for expressing female حمراء

Suffix for expressing a plural شعراء

3&4 cannot have TANWEEN (Dealt like foreign nouns)

And in 1&2 ALIF should not be kept after the HAMZA in the case of double FATHAH مساء

exceptions for maqsoor noun
Exceptions for MAQSOOR noun

A maqsūr noun has three cases for DUAL:

A. If it ends in a long alif – the alif should be changed to a wāw and then the dual letters should be added.

For example:عصا (cane) becomes عَصَو which becomes عَصَوانِ (two canes).

B. If it ends in an alif maqsūrah (short) – the alif

should be changed to a yā’ and then the dual letters should be added.

For example:فتیَ (young man) becomes فَتي which

becomes فَتَيَانِ (two young men).

C. If the ALIF was above three letters then it is converted to YAA absolutely مصطفى مصطفيان

D. For plural maqsūr nouns;its alif is erased and A FATHA indicating the removal of ALIF is placed on the WOW or YAA : مصطَفَونَ (MOSTAFOWN, MOSTAFAYN)

exceptions for dual from mamdood noun
Exceptions for dual from MAMDOOD noun

A mamdūd noun has two cases for DUAL:

  • If the hamzah is a feminine hamzah – the hamzah should be changed into a wāw with a fathah and then the dual letters should be added.

For example: خَصراء (green) ) becomes خَضراوَ which

becomes .خَضراوانِ

B. If it was orignal then it will remain as it is ابتداء= ابتداءان

C. If the hamzah is not a feminine hamzah and it was converted from WOW or YAA then – the hamzah can either remain or be changed into a wāw with a fathah and then the dual letters should be added. For

example سماء (sky) becomes سماء or سَماوَ which becomes سَماءَانِ or سَماوَانِ (two skies). حياءان حياوان =حياء

  • For Plural: it undertakes the same change as is given to it in the dual form, for example: .بَنَّاؤُونَ
exceptions for manqoos noun
Exceptions for MANQOOS noun
  • For dual manqūs nouns; If the YAA of MANQOOS was deleted then it should be returned in the word and after that the word can be made dual.
  • مهتديان = مهتد
  • If a noun was two lettered then there must be a letter removed form the word, therefore if there was a noun such as أب ,أخ then the removed third letter (wow) is returned and then the word made dual أبوان ,أخوان,
  • two hands or two mouths or two bloods دمان, فمان , يدان are odd from the above rule
  • For plural manqūs nouns; the yā’ is erased and the letter before the wāw is given a dummah or the letter before the yā’ is given a kasrah, for example: هادُونَ(HADOON) هادين (HADEEN) ,
plural of siffah adjectives
Plural of SIFFAH (adjectives)
  • The conditions of adjectives are that
  • they do not have a feminine tā’ : عالِم (scholar) becomes عالِمونَ (scholars).
  • it is an adjective of a human in the comparative/ superlative form. For example: أکرَم becomes أکرَمونَ they do not indicate the superlative or comparative form and are not from the form which has gender distinguished such as :

فَعلاءأفعل ,or فَعلیَفَعلان

  • Since related noun by the relating YAA is similar to adjectives then it takes the same rule, for example: .لُبنانيُّونَ
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