Ama 177 anatomy physiology medical terminology pathology 8 musculoskeletal system
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AMA 177 - Anatomy & Physiology/Medical Terminology/Pathology 8 Musculoskeletal System. Function:. Made up of bones, muscles and joints. Bones are the framework that protect and support internal organs. Bones manufacture red blood cells in the marrow and store minerals necessary for growth.

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AMA 177 - Anatomy & Physiology/Medical Terminology/Pathology 8 Musculoskeletal System

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Ama 177 anatomy physiology medical terminology pathology 8 musculoskeletal system

AMA 177 - Anatomy & Physiology/Medical Terminology/Pathology 8 Musculoskeletal System


Function

Function:

  • Made up of bones, muscles and joints.

  • Bones are the framework that protect and support internal organs.

  • Bones manufacture red blood cells in the marrow and store minerals necessary for growth.

  • Muscles are responsible for the movement of the body.

  • Joints are the places where bones come together; the type of joint depends on the need for more or less movement.


Structure of the musculoskeletal system bones

Structure of the Musculoskeletal System: Bones

Bones: composed of connective tissue (osseous tissue) as well as blood vessels and nerves.

  • Bones need calcium and phosphorus to grow.

  • Bone cells called osteoblasts and osteoclasts work together to build bones and breakdown excess bone tissue; bones are living tissues that constantly rebuild and renew as a response to the mechanical stress of movement.


Bones

Bones:

  • There are 206 bones in the body.

  • Long bones, such as the femur, are every strong and have large surface areas for muscles to attach.

  • Short bones, such as the carpals in the hand, are grouped together to help provide movement.

  • Flat bones, such as the ribs, cover and protect soft body parts.

  • Sesamoid bones, such as the kneecap, are small and rounded; they are found near joints to increase the efficiency of the muscles near that joint.

  • Study all the different types of bones and their locations and function in the body.


Parts of the bone

Parts of the bone:

  • Diaphysis: middle region of long bones

  • Epiphysis: each end of the long bones

  • Epiphyseal plate: cartilage tissue that is constantly replaced as bone grows; disappears when bone is fully grown, very obvious in children

  • Metaphysis: flared portion of bone between diaphysis and epiphysis

  • Periosteum: strong, fibrous, vascular covering of long bones; has extensive nerve supply


Parts of the bone continued

Parts of the bone continued:

  • Articular cartilage: ends of long bones and surface of any bone that meets another to form a joint; cushions the joint, allowing fluid movement

  • Compact bone: layer of hard dense bone under the periosteum; contains canals of blood vessels that nourish the bone and remove waste products

  • Haversian canals: channels in compact bone that contain blood vessels

  • Medullary cavity: central shaft of long bones that contains yellow bone marrow that is made up of mostly fat cells

  • Cancellous bone: spongy, porous bone tissue in the center of bones that contain spaces that contain red bone marrow; this is where red blood cells are made.


Bone processes

Bone processes:

  • Enlarged areas that extend out from bones that function as attachments for muscles and tendons

  • Bones also contain openings and hollow areas that help join bones together and serve as passages for blood vessels and nerves:

  • Fossa: shallow cavity in a bone

  • Foramen: opening in a bone for blood vessels and nerves

  • Fissure: deep, narrow slit in a bone

  • Sinus: hollow cavity in a bone


Structure of the musculoskeletal system muscles

Structure of the Musculoskeletal System: Muscles

Three types of muscles:

  • Striated: made up of voluntary or skeletal muscles that move all bones, facial expressions and eye movement; we control these muscles. Muscle fibers are arranged in bundles. There are more than 600 muscles in the body. Muscles attached to bones contract and relax in groups to cause movement; tendons connect the muscles to the bones

  • Smooth: involuntary or visceral muscles that move internal organs, such as the digestive tract; we do not control these. Muscle fibers are arranged in sheets that wrap around vessels

  • Cardiac: heart muscles; we do not control these. Arranged in branching fibers

  • Study all the different types of muscles and their locations and function in the body as well as the types of movements they create.


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