Design for Sustainability and the Environment. Standards in Sustainable Engineering and Design Doctor of Philosophy Viva Presentation Alexander V. C. Plant B.Sc.( Hons ), M.A, MMC, MIED Postgraduate Researcher Supervisors: Prof. David J. Harrison Rev. Dr. Brian J. Griffiths.
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Design for Sustainability and the Environment
Standards in Sustainable Engineering and Design
Doctor of Philosophy Viva Presentation
Alexander V. C. Plant
B.Sc.(Hons), M.A, MMC, MIED
Supervisors: Prof. David J. Harrison
Rev. Dr. Brian J. Griffiths
Design for Sustainability and the Environment
What types of organizations have acquired BS 8887-1?
What are their motives?
Are there examples of BS 8887-1 being used commercially?
Can BS 8887-1 contribute to profit?
How and why has BS 8887-1 been integrated into the design process?
What is the relationship between legislation and standards?
What has motivated producers to consider ESD?
Novel use of Standard Industrial Classification (SIC) applied to BS 8887-1 user group
Use of databases e.g. QA Register (United Kingdom Register of Quality Assessed Companies), FAME (financial analysis) and Companies House
Comparative analysis using data from the Office for National Statistics (ONS)
Clustering data from multiple sources
Graphical representation of results – charts, graphs, maps etc.
Novel representation of SIC system as a multi-level chart
Quantitative analysis of qualitative data
Computerised qualitative data analysis
Cross-referencing of field data with published sources
Characteristics of organizations that accessed BS 8887-1
Based in England
Aged between 21 and 50 years old
Medium or large enterprises
Engineering companies that manufacture products and equipment, especially electrical, electronic and mechanical goods
ISO 9001 certified
Qualitative Research Method
The thematic arrangement of data allowed efficient comparison of related statements from multiple sources
Quantitative Analysis of the Interview Data
BS 8887-1 had been read and considered at over 25% of the organizations contacted, and used by at least nine
Participants were primarily interested in BS 8887-1 for its ESD content, commercial benefit attainable through DfM and meeting legislative requirements
The major incentives for ESD were customer demand, extended producer responsibility (EPR) legislation and individuals with an interest in sustainability
STANDARDS AND DESIGN FOR ENVIRONMENT
BS 8887-1 USED TO INFORM THE DESIGN PROCESS, SUPPORT MANUFACTURERS IN MEETING THE REQUIREMENTS OF EPR LEGISLATION, MINIMISE NEGATIVE PRODUCT LIFE-CYCLE IMPACTS AND SUPPORT DFE
LEGISLATION AND CUSTOMER DEMAND MOTIVATE DFE IN NPD
ISO 14001 CERTIFICATION COMMONLY REQUIRED OF SUPPLIERS
RELEVANT PRODUCT-SPECIFIC STANDARDS REFERENCED
EPR SUPPORTED BY BS 8887-1
CONCEPTS DEVELOPED TO MEET REQUIREMENTS INCLUDING DFE
SUSTAINABILITY CONSIDERED EARLY IN THE DESIGN PROCESS
DFM, DFA, DFD, DFEOL APPLIED
STANDARDS REVIEWED FOR COMPLIANCE AND VERIFICATION
DFD FACILITATES SEPARATION OF WEEE FROM RETURNED PRODUCT
DFD AND DFR MINIMISE REPROCESSING COST TO MANUFACTURER
DFE INCREASES PRODUCT DESIRABILITY
DFD AND DFA REDUCE WARRANTY COSTS AND FACILITATE REPAIR
DFD AND DFA SUPPORT SERVICING AND PRODUCT LIFE EXTENSION
DFD AND DFR INCREASE THE VALUE OF EOL PRODUCT
DFE, DFD AND DFR REDUCE PRODUCT ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT
The Use Of Standards In New Product Development Model
EPR legislation stimulated sales of BS 8887-1 especially among electronics equipment producers
BS 8887-1 is a good fit with best practice and has been used as a reference source to support the complete NPD process
Used in design education in connection with ESD and ELV
ESD is motivated by legislation, profit, customer demand and environmentally concerned individuals in positions of influence
Elements of BS 8887-1 have been used in connection with:
QFD / HoQ (Proposed)
Summary of Contribution to Knowledge
An analysis of the distribution of BS 8887-1 by industry sector and other quantifiable data
The identification of factors that have motivated businesses and other organizations to use BS 8887-1
Industrial examples of the financial benefits of applying design principles from BS 8887-1
Identification of methods and techniques for incorporating product life cycle planning, and meeting the requirements of BS 8887-1 in NPD
Development of two new variants of the design process
New BSI working group formed to consider developing BS 8887 as an ISO standard
BSI is now developing a DfMADE graphical handbook
Over 15 presentations, lecturers and conference addresses given
Quotes from this research were used by BSI’s Head of Marketing to promote BS 8887 during ICoR in Glasgow
Three journal papers published (all as lead author, one peer reviewed)
Three peer reviewed journal papers pending (one as lead author)
Significantly raised the profile and awareness of BS 8887
Project website www.alexplant.co.uk receives approximately 150 visitors worldwide each month
‘Design for Life’ paper used to promote the sale of a company concerned with the development of aircraft components that last longer, and can be disassembled and repaired more easily than the current equivalent in-service version
Plant, A. V. C., Harrison, D. J., Griffiths, B. J. and Lam, B. (2009) ‘An Analysis of Organizations that have Purchased BS 8887-1’, Research Student Conference (ReSCon), Brunel University, 22-24 June pp. 160-162.
Plant, A. V. C., Harrison, D. J., Griffiths, B. J. and Lam, B. (2009) ‘An Investigation into Standards in Sustainable Design and Manufacture’, Sustainable Innovation: Towards a Low Carbon Innovation Revolution, Farnham Castle, 26-27 October pp.163-168.
Plant, A. V. C., Harrison, D. J., Griffiths, B. J. and Lam, B. (2010) ‘Sustainable Design Standards: Industrial Acceptance and Implementation’, Design School Research Student Conference’ (DeSReS), Loughborough University, 21 April.
Plant, A. V. C., Harrison, D. J., Griffiths, B. J. and Lam, B. (2010) ‘Economic benefits of Sustainable Design Standards in Industry’, Research Student Conference (ReSCon), Brunel University, 21-23 June pp. 82-83. (Prize Awarded for Oral Presentation).
Plant, A. V. C., Harrison, D. J., Griffiths, B. J. and De Coster, R. J. (2010) ‘Design for Manufacture and Sustainability in New Product Development’, 15th Cambridge International Manufacturing Symposium: Innovation in Global Manufacturing – New Models for Sustainable Value Capture, Institute for Manufacturing, University of Cambridge, 23-24 September.
De Coster, R. J., Bateman, R. J. and Plant, A. V. C. (2010) ‘Sustainable Development Strategies for Product Provision and Manufacturing Approaches’, 15th Cambridge International Manufacturing Symposium: Innovation in Global Manufacturing – New Models for Sustainable Value Capture, Institute for Manufacturing, University of Cambridge, 23-24 September.
Plant, A. V. C., Harrison, D. J. and Griffiths, B. J. (2011) ‘Case Studies in the Application of Sustainable Design Standards’, 16th Sustainable Design Network (SDN) Seminar: Sustainable Consumption, Nottingham Trent University, 4 April.
De Coster, R. J., Bateman, R. J. and Plant, A. V. C. (2011) ‘Sustainable Design Strategies for Electronics Products Utilising Life-cycle Assessment (LCA)’, 21st International Conference on Production Research, Stuttgart, Germany, 31 July – 4 August.
Plant, A. V. C., Harrison, D. J., Griffiths, B. J. and Lam, B. (2010) ‘Design Standards for Product End-of-Life Processing’, International Journal of Sustainable Engineering, 3 (3), pp. 159-169.
Plant, A. V. C., Harrison, D. J. and Griffiths, B. J. (2011) ‘Raising the Standard: A Review of Standards and Legislation in Sustainable Product Design’, The Journal of the Institution of Engineering Designers, January/February.
Plant, A. V. C., Harrison, D. J., Griffiths, B. J. and De Coster, R. J. (2011) ‘Design for Life (and beyond)’ The Journal of the Institution of Engineering Designers, March/April.
Plant, A. V. C., Harrison, D. J., Griffiths, B. J. and De Coster, R. J (2012) ‘Integrating Life Cycle Design Standards in New product Development’, Proceedings of the IMechE: Part B – Journal of Engineering Manufacture Special Issue on ‘Sustainable Manufacturing and Key Enabling Technologies’ (Pending).
De Coster, R. J., Bateman, R. J. and Plant, A. V. C. (2012) ‘Sustainable Product Development Strategies: Business Planning and Performance Implications’, Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part B, Journal of Engineering Manufacture (Pending).
De Coster, R. J., Bateman, R. J. and Plant, A. V. C. (2012) ‘Supply Chain Implications of Sustainable Design Strategies for Electronics Products’, International Journal of Advanced Logistics (Pending).