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ADVOKASI TERHADAP KORBAN & PENGALAMAN DI BEBERAPA NEGARA TOT Victimology & Victim Assistance LPSK, Bogor 27 Maret 2013. Heru Susetyo Staf Pengajar Viktimologi, HAM & Hukum Perlindungan Anak FH-UI Executive Committee World Society of Victimology

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ADVOKASI TERHADAP KORBAN & PENGALAMAN DI BEBERAPA NEGARA TOT Victimology & Victim AssistanceLPSK, Bogor 27 Maret 2013

Heru Susetyo

Staf Pengajar Viktimologi, HAM & Hukum Perlindungan Anak FH-UI

Executive Committee World Society of Victimology

Advokat HAM pada Pusat Advokasi Hukum dan Hak Asasi Manusia (PAHAM)

three definitions of victim
Three definitions of Victim
  • The crime victim
  • The universal concept of victims (Mendelsohn)
  • The victim of violations of human rights including crime

(Kirchhoff & Morosawa, 2009)

victims are socially constructed
Victims are Socially Constructed
  • Victims are socially constructed, it is not sufficient that persons claim the status of victims without sufficient social acknowledgement (social construction of reality).

(Barkhuizen 2007, in Kirchhoff and Morosawa, 2009)

ezzat fattah on victimology 1
Ezzat Fattah on Victimology (1)

(Ezzat Fattah, 2002)

Victimology, the study of crime victims, their characteristics, their relationship to, and their interactions with, their victimizers, their role and their actual contribution to the genesis of crime, offers a great promise for transforming etiological criminology from a static, one-sided study of the traits and attributes of the offender into a dynamic, situational approach that views criminal behaviour not as a unilateral action but as the outcome of dynamic processes of interaction.

  • FACULTY OF LAW
  • UNIVERSITY OF INDONESIA
ezzat fattah on victimology 2
Ezzat Fattah on Victimology (2)

The study of the victims is and will always remain an integral part of criminology. Any attempt to separate victimology from criminology, or to treat it as an independent or autonomous discipline is bound to fail.

  • FACULTY OF LAW
  • UNIVERSITY OF INDONESIA
victimology and victimization shichor and tibbets 2002
VICTIMOLOGY AND VICTIMIZATION(Shichor and Tibbets, 2002)

Victimology focused on individual victims of violent crimes committed by individual perpetrators.

Gradually, victimological studies expanded to organizations and corporations as victim and victimizers.

Victimology is in the process of delineating its focus of study, defining its key concepts, theoretical approaches, refining its data-collection methods, and generally trying to establish itself as a legitimate and independent discipline.

  • FACULTY OF LAW
  • UNIVERSITY OF INDONESIA
victimology and victimization 1
VICTIMOLOGY AND VICTIMIZATION (1)

Victimology :

the scientific study of the victim of human rights violation (including crime), of victimizations and of reactions to both of those.

Victimology deals with victims, with victims of human rights violation (including crime)

Victimology deals with empirically accessible social realities.

(Kirchhoff, 2005).

  • FACULTY OF LAW
  • UNIVERSITY OF INDONESIA
victimology victimization 2
VICTIMOLOGY & VICTIMIZATION (2)

Victimology is interested in the process of becoming a victim (which social, group, institutional and individual conditions lead to these processes?) > victimization.

Victimology looks at reactions, reactions to victims and reactions to victimization.

(Kirchhoff, 2005).

  • FACULTY OF LAW
  • UNIVERSITY OF INDONESIA
mendelsohn general victimology
Mendelsohn & General Victimology

Beniamin Mendelsohn continued to develop his ideas about victims for crime until he arrived at the theory of general victimology. Its purpose was to help `victims of all kinds` -including victims of beyond human control (Hoffman, 1992 : 90).

Mendelsohn developed the concept of victimity : “whole of the socio-bio-psychological characteristics, common to all victims in general, which society wishes to prevent and fight, no matter what their determinants are (criminal or others).

  • FACULTY OF LAW
  • UNIVERSITY OF INDONESIA
victim services
VICTIM SERVICES
  • Victim services are those activities which are applied in response to victimizations with the intention of relieving suffering and facilitating recovery.
  • This includes providing information, making assesments, conducting individual interventions, engaging in social advocacy, proposing public policy and working in program development.

(Dussich, 2010)

what is advocacy
What is advocacy?
  • Advocacy is speaking, acting and writing with minimal conflict of interest on behalf of the sincerely perceived interests of a disadvantaged person or group to promote, protect and defend their welfare and justice.

www.qppd.org

FACULTY OF LAW

UNIVERSITY OF INDONESIA

slide13

Advocacy is pursuit of influencing outcomes - including public policy and resource allocation decisions within political, economic, and social systems and institutions - that directly affect people\'s lives.

  • www.qppd.org

FACULTY OF LAW

UNIVERSITY OF INDONESIA

slide14

Advocacy has purposeful results:

  • to enable social justice advocates to gain access and voice in the decision making of relevant institutions;
  • to change the power relationships between these institutions and the people affected by their decisions, thereby changing the institutions themselves; and
  • to bring a clear improvement in people\'s lives

www.qppd.org

FACULTY OF LAW

UNIVERSITY OF INDONESIA

slide15

Advocacy consists of organized efforts and actions based on the reality of "what is." These organized actions seek to highlight critical issues that have been ignored and submerged, to influence public attitudes, and to enact and implement laws and public policies so that visions of "what should be" in a just, decent society become a reality.

  • www.qppd.org

FACULTY OF LAW

UNIVERSITY OF INDONESIA

what is advocacy 3
What is advocacy (3)

Advocacy efforts may include :

  • Proposing public policy or questioning the prevailing public policies.
  • Lobbying for rights and services
  • Public demonstrations
  • Public and professional education through written information and programs.

FACULTY OF LAW

UNIVERSITY OF INDONESIA

types of advocacy
TYPES OF ADVOCACY
  • Two main forms of advocacy :
  • Individual advocacy
  • System Advocacy

FACULTY OF LAW

UNIVERSITY OF INDONESIA

individual advocacy
Individual Advocacy
  • Focuses on changing the situation of one person – to protect his or her rights or to improve individual services.
  • Two common forms :
  • Informal advocacy; is undertaken by individuals, their parents, brothers and sisters, relatives, friends.
  • Voluntary or not to profit community based organizations that pay staff to advocate for individuals .

(www.mndaust.asn.au)

FACULTY OF LAW

UNIVERSITY OF INDONESIA

system advocacy
SYSTEM ADVOCACY
  • Works to change the situation of a whole group of people who share a similar problem, or to change a service system. System advocacy can benefit many people. It also strives to prevent problem.
  • System advocacy encourages changes to the law, government and service provider policies and community attitudes.

FACULTY OF LAW

UNIVERSITY OF INDONESIA

system advocacy 2
SYSTEM ADVOCACY (2)
  • Seeks to influence change in the broader political and social arenas because without change at this level, positive change for individuals is more difficult to achieve.
  • Speak out for new legislation, policies and practices.
  • Highlighting where policy is in place but not being implemented.
  • Involving in coalitions

www.family-advocacy.com

FACULTY OF LAW

UNIVERSITY OF INDONESIA

terminologi yang lain
Terminologi yang lain…
  • System advocacy
  • Structural advocacy
  • Structural legal aid (Indonesian)
  • Social advocacy?

FACULTY OF LAW

UNIVERSITY OF INDONESIA

tentang advokasi sosial proses2 pembentukan kebijakan publik
TENTANG ADVOKASI SOSIAL :PROSES2 PEMBENTUKAN KEBIJAKAN PUBLIK

PROSES2 LEGISLASI & JURISDIKSI

PROSES2 POLITIK & BIROKRASI

PROSES2 SOSIALISASI & MOBILISASI

proses2 legislasi dan jurisdiksi
PROSES2 LEGISLASI DAN JURISDIKSI
  • PENGAJUAN USUL, KONSEP TANDING, DAN PEMBELAAN
  • Sarana : legal drafting, counter draft

judicial review

class action, legal standing

litigasi/ jurisprudensi

proses2 politik dan birokrasi
PROSES2 POLITIK DAN BIROKRASI

MEMPENGARUHI PEMBUAT DAN PELAKSANA PERATURAN

SARANA :

LOBBY

NEGOSIASI

MEDIASI

KOLABORASI

pembagian kerja advokasi
PEMBAGIAN KERJA ADVOKASI
  • KERJA PENDUKUNG

KERJA GARIS DEPAN

  • KERJA BASIS
kerja pendukung supporting units
KERJA PENDUKUNG (Supporting units)

MENYEDIAKAN DANA

LOGISTIK

INFORMAS

DATA

AKSES

kerja basis ground works
KERJA BASIS (ground works)
  • ADALAH DAPUR GERAKAN ADVOKASI
  • MEMBANGUN BASIS MASSA
  • PENDIDIKAN POLITIK KADER
  • MEMBENTUK LINGKAR INTI
  • MOBILISASI AKSI
kerja garis depan front liners
KERJA GARIS DEPAN (front liners)

MELAKSANAKAN FUNGSI JURU BICARA

PERUNDING

PELOBBY

TERLIBAT DALAM PROSES LEGISLASI DAN JURISDIKSI

MENGGALANG SEKUTU

arus advokasi terpadu
ARUS ADVOKASI TERPADU

BENTUK LINGKAR INTI

KUMPULKAN DATA/ INFO

ANALISIS DATA/ INFO

DISKUSI, SEMINAR, DLL

PILIH ISSU STRATEGIS

KEMAS ISSUE SEMENARIK MUNGKIN

GALANG SEKUTU SEBANYAK MUNGKIN

PENGORGANISASIAN MASYARAKAT

PENDIDIKAN POLITIK

slide30

SIAPKAN SATUAN / BARISAN PENDUKUNG

BANGUN BASIS GERAKAN

PELATIHAN TEKNIS

AJUKAN KONSEP TANDING

LAKUKAN PEMBELAAN

PENGARUHI PEMBUAT DAN PELAKSANA KEBIJAKAN

slide31

PENGARUHI PENDAPAT UMUM

  • LANCARKAN TEKANAN

PERUBAHAN KEBIJAKAN PUBLIK

slide32

JARINGAN KERJA ADVOKASI

  • (Roem Toppatimasing, dkk)
  • KERJA PENDUKUNG
  • (Supporting units)
  • Dana, logistik, informasi,
  • data, akses
  • KERJA GARIS DEPAN
  • (Front lines)
  • Melaksanakan fungsi juru bicara,
  • Lobby, negosiasi, terlibat dalam
  • Proses legislasi dan litigasi,
  • Menggalang sekutu
  • KERJA BASIS
  • (Ground works)
  • “ dapur” gerakan advokasi :
  • Membangun basis masa,
  • Pend. Politik kader, mbtk lingkar inti
  • Mobilisasi aksi, kampanye
bagan arus sistem kerja advokasi roem toppatimasang dkk
BAGAN ARUS SISTEM KERJA ADVOKASI(Roem Toppatimasang, dkk)

Monitoring dan Evaluasi

Umpan balik

Analisis

Data

Menyiakan

Alternatif

pemecahan

  • Seminar, diskusi, dll
  • Legal
  • drafting
  • Judicial
  • review
  • Studi
  • penelitian

Pengaruhi

Pendapat

umum

Kumpulkan

Informasi

Kampanye,

Jumpa pers

Perubahan

Kebijakan

Contrent

Bangun

Aliansi

Tetapkan Issue

Dan tujuan

Strategis

Pengaruhi

Pembuat

Keputusan

Bentuk Tim

Inti

Bungkus/

Kemas

Issue

  • negosiasi

Structure

Lobby

Culture

  • litigasi

Identifikasi

Korban

Adakan

pembelaan

  • Aksi massa,
  • Demonstrasi,
  • boykot

Siapkan

Basis

Gerakan

Lancarkan

Tekanan

Pengorganisasian Masyarakat

Pemberdayaan

Pendidikan

Politik

Siapkan Sistem Pendukung

Dana, logistik, Sistem informasi

slide34

PROSES PROSES

  • LEGISLASI & JURISDIKSI
  • (pengajuan usul, konsep tanding,
  • Dan pembelaan)
  • - legal drafting
  • Counter draft
  • Judicial review
  • litigasi
  • ISI/NASKAH
  • HUKUM

PEMBENTUKAN/

PERUBAHAN

KEBIJAKAN

PUBLIK

TATA

LAKSANA

HUKUM

  • Lobby
  • negosiasi
  • mediasi
  • kolaborasi
  • PROSES-PROSES
  • POLITIK BIROKRASI
  • (Mempengaruhi pembuat
  • & pelaksana putusan

BUDAYA

HUKUK

  • PROSES-PROSES
  • SOSIALISASI &
  • MOBILISASI
  • (Membentuk pendapat
  • umum
  • Dan tekanan politik)
  • kampanye, siaran pers
  • unjuk rasa, mogok, boykot
  • pengorganisasian basis
  • pendidikan politik
pasal 16
Pasal 16

(1)Advokasi sosial dimaksudkan untuk melindungi dan membela seseorang, keluarga, kelompok, dan/ atau masyarakat yang dilanggar haknya.

(2) Advokasi sosial sebagaimana dimaksud pada ayat (1) diberikan dalam bentuk penyadaran hak dan kewajiban, pembelaan, dan pemenuhan hak.

lesson learned
Lesson Learned :

Disaster Victimization (KorbanBencanaAlam) & System Advocacy > Indonesia, Thailand, Japan

system advocacy for indonesian disaster victims
System Advocacy for Indonesian Disaster Victims
  • Triggered by Aceh/ Indian ocean earthquake –tsunami 2004
  • NGOs/ NPOs played active and significant role in conducting system advocacy for disaster victims.

FACULTY OF LAW

UNIVERSITY OF INDONESIA

the role of ngo mpbi
The Role of NGO > MPBI
  • MasyarakatPenanggulanganBencana Indonesia/ Indonesian Society for Disaster Countermeasures have conducted such measures as follows :
  • Initiating the draft of Indonesian Disaster Management Act, including Presidential Decree and bylaws both in national and local level.
  • Creating a framework of Community-based disaster risk reduction management

FACULTY OF LAW

UNIVERSITY OF INDONESIA

slide42

3. Campaigning, promoting and disseminating humanitarian standard (SPHERE Project) for volunteers.

  • Conducting research, discussion, and seminar on disaster countermeasures issues.

FACULTY OF LAW

UNIVERSITY OF INDONESIA

proposing indonesian disaster management act
Proposing Indonesian Disaster Management Act
  • Indonesia does not have Disaster Management Act until the enactment of Law No. 24 year 2007 on Disaster Management/ Countermeasures
  • Previously, the laws concerning disaster management are only presidential decree No. 3 year 2001 on Coordinating Board of Disaster Management.
major issues on disaster management
Major Issues on Disaster Management

LACK OF MANAGEMENT CAPACITY ON DISASTER RESPONSE

Delay in the management of emergency response

Lack of coordination in planning and programming for post-disaster recovery

Institutional framework is more focus on emergency response, rather than post-disaster recovery

Funding more emphasizes on emergency response

LACK OF UNDERSTANDING IN DISASTER RISK REDUCTION

Lack of understanding in the preparation of disaster preparedness and risk reduction

Lack of institutional performance in the management of risk reduction

Lack of planning and programming for risk reduction

Lack of incorporating risk disaster mitigation into spatial plans

(Hadi, 2007)

  • 44
new paradigm on disaster management hadi 2007
New Paradigm on Disaster Management(Hadi, 2007)

Recognizing the right for dignified life and livelihood and that the government responsible to ensure the protection from disaster, which is essence is avoidable, with no risks creation in recovery process

Reducing disaster risk factors from unsustainable development practices that are worsened by the impact of climate changes

Being accountable to the risk community and/or disaster-affected community and sensitivity to gender, participatory, equity and justice perspectives

Reactive

Proactive

Emergency

Response

Risk Reduction

Centralize

Local Autonomy

Government

Participatory

  • MAJOR ISSUES
  • GUIDELINES, COORDINATION, LOCAL
  • CAPACITY, FUNDING FRAMEWORK,
  • LONGER-TERM RECOVERY
  • MAJOR ISSUES
  • COMMON PERCEPTION, INSTITUTIONAL
  • CAPACITY, FUNDING SOURCE,
  • COMMUNITY PREPAREDNESS
  • 45
slide46

Changes

Previous

Future

  • Paradigm
  • Approach
  • Institution
  • Governance
  • Paradigm
  • Approach
  • Institution
  • Governance

DM Law

No. 24/2007

  • Triggered by Aceh Tsunami
slide48

Victim Services (1) : Legal Representation by Thai Action Committee for Democracy in Burma in the aftermath of Phuket Phang Nga- Thailand Tsunami December 2004

http://www.tacdb-burmese.org/web/index.php?option=com_content&view=section&layout=blog&id=28&Itemid=70

FACULTY OF LAW

UNIVERSITY OF INDONESIA

victim services 2 advocating burmese unregistered migrant workers who were victimized by tsunami
Victim Services (2) : Advocating Burmese Unregistered Migrant Workers who were victimized by tsunami

FACULTY OF LAW

UNIVERSITY OF INDONESIA

disaster victims sea gypsy moken
Disaster Victims : Sea Gypsy (Moken)

FACULTY OF LAW

UNIVERSITY OF INDONESIA

advokasi korban konflik thailand selatan pattani
ADVOKASI KORBAN KONFLIK THAILAND SELATAN – PATTANI

NGO Cross Cultural Foundation bekerja untuk pendampingan korban kekerasan di Thailand Selatan dalam bentuk :

  • pendampingan keluarga korban di Thailand Selatan
  • Observasi dan investigasi
  • Monitoring pengadilan dan persidangan
  • Menyediakan pengacara untuk tersangka
  • Melakukan kampanye, membuat petisi dan diseminasi issue

http://www.crcf.or.th/en/index.php

slide53
Advokasi Korban Kekerasan Negara terhadap Pengungsi/ Pencari Suaka Rohingya asal MyanmarPIARA – Pusat Informasi & Advokasi Rohingya Arakan
advokasi untuk pengungsi rohingya
Advokasi untuk Pengungsi Rohingya
  • Investigasi dan monitoring ke Rudenim dan tempat-tempat para pengungsi
  • Kampanye
  • Penyampaian sikap ke legislatif/ eksekutif dan Myanmar Embassy
  • Mendatangkan Rohingya leaders in exile untuk roadshow di Indonesia
  • Menyampaikan bantuan kemanusiaan
slide56
Arigato gozaimashita
  • Terima kasih banyak !
  • Khob khun mak mak khrap

FACULTY OF LAW

UNIVERSITY OF INDONESIA

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