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Teen Dating Violence: Analysis of Common Theories Used to Explain TDV & Application of the Theory of Triadic Influence. Jill C. Hoxmeier H671: Advanced Theory of HB Fall 2012. Teen Dating Violence.

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slide1

Teen Dating Violence:Analysis of Common Theories Used to Explain TDV & Application of the Theory of Triadic Influence

Jill C. Hoxmeier

H671: Advanced Theory of HB

Fall 2012

teen dating violence
Teen Dating Violence
  • “The use or threat of physical force or restraint carried out with the intent of causing pain or injury to another” (Sugarman & Hotaling, 1989, p.5)
  • Inclusion of emotional, psychological, and sexual abuse.
  • 1 in 4 teens experience dating aggression (Avery-Leaf, Cascardi, O’Leary, & Cano, 1997; Foshee et al., 1996)
  • 9.4% of high school students had been physically abused by partner (CDC, 2011); more than 75% of teens report psychological aggression (Jackson, Cram, & Seymour, 2000)
  • Wide range of negative health outcomes associated with DV
  • Teen experience unique from adult experience
  • Variety of theories used to explain DV but their limitations challenge ability to fully understand, intervene, and prevent
feminist theory
Feminist Theory
  • Posits violence against women is rooted in patriarchy; DV is extension of sexist oppression where perpetrators use abusive behaviors to exert P & C over victim

Support:

  • Supported by adult DV rates and teen rates of sexual victimization
  • Qualitative studies showing teens endorsing gender role stereotypes (i.e. male aggression as symbol of masculinity)

Limitations:

  • Focus on the social/environmental determinants of behavior
  • Much evidence shows girls and boys have similar perpetration and victimization rates
  • Does not explain how teens / adults are able to avoid use of aggression in relationships

(de Bouvoir, 1957; Dobash & Dobash, 1979)

attachment theory
Attachment Theory
  • Posits the child/parent relationship creates prototype for which future relationships are based (insecure styles increases risk for aggression)

Support:

  • Some people with healthy parent relationships have healthy romantic relationships and vice versa (Hazen & Shaver, 1987)
  • Accounts for both cognitive and affective influences

Limitations:

  • Overemphasis on interpersonal / social determinants of behavior
  • “Parent-blaming” through exclusive focus on parenting style
  • Creates gendered roles for victims and perpetrators not supported by the literature

(Bowlby, 1969, 1973, 1980)

theory of intergenerational transmission of violence
Theory of Intergenerational Transmission of Violence
  • Posits children learn aggression from parents through growing up in DV home and enculturation of patriarchal values

Support

  • Children who witness parent violence have more accepting attitudes toward violence (Foshee, Bauman, & Linder, 1999) are increased risk for being violent in their own relationships (Wekerle & Wolfe, 1999)

Limitations

  • Exclusive focus on interpersonal / social determinants of behavior
  • Creates gendered / rigid roles for victims and perpetrators
  • Does not account for teens who witness DV in homes and do not use violence

(Rosenbaum & O’Leary, 1981; Ulbrich, & Huber, 1981)

social learning theory
Social Learning Theory
  • Posits children learn aggression through observation and modeling of violence behaviors

Support:

  • Expands focus to peers in addition to parents
  • Helps explains female and male perpetration / victimization rates (teens who have DV friends are increased risk for DV)

Limitations:

  • Emphasis on interpersonal / social context
  • Does not provide clear causal pathway from modeling to performance if models / observation are incongruent
  • If not all teens act aggressively, there must be determinants that SLT does not account for

(Bandura, 1976)

theory of triadic influence
Theory of Triadic Influence
  • Posits HRB are determined by influences under three stream and at three different levels, where constructs are interrelated yet assumes no strength of relationship between determinants

Improvements on other theories:

  • Personal, Social, and Environmental determinants have all been found to influence teen dating violence
  • Organized in a manner that provides alternative causal pathways that account for variability teens who do and do not perform aggressive behaviors
  • Emphasized the role of reinforcing influences
  • Accounts for similar causal pathways of related behaviors

(Flay& Petraitis, 1994)

tti personal stream of influence

BIOLOGY/

PERSONALITY

SELF-EFFICACY

BEHAVIORAL

CONTROL

TTI: Personal Stream of Influence

1

2

  • Sense of Self / Control: those seeking external validation of self more likely to report DV; teens using aggression to exert control of others = influences self determination of having healthy relationships
  • Social Competence: capacity for gaining perspective of others, from experience, relating to others, building relationships, etc. = influences ability resolve conflict
  • Self-Efficacy / Behavioral Control: lack of self-esteem + inability to resolve conflict effectively = dating violence

Sense of

Social

Self/Control

Competence

7

8

Self

Skills:

Determination

Social+Generalal

13

14

slide9

SOCIAL

SITUATION

SOCIAL

NORMATIVE

BELIEFS

TTI: Social Stream of Influence

  • Other’s Behaviors and Attitudes: witnessing violence and exposure to violence accepting attitudes shape perceived norms on use of violence

3

4

  • Interpersonal Bonding: relationships influence motivation to comply; similar to Attachment Theory / TITV

Interpersonal

Others’

Bonding

Beh & Atts

9

10

Motivationn

Perceived

to Comply

Norms

15

16

  • Social Normative Believes: influenced by relational modeling / observation of aggression acceptance and use
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CULTURAL

ENVIRONMENT

Interactions w/

Social Instit’s

ATTITUDES

TOWARD THE

BEHAVIOR

TTI: Environmental Stream of Influence

5

6

  • Interactions w/ Social Institutions: youth exposed to community violence at increased risk = shapes values on use of aggression
  • Information / Opportunities: media perpetuation of violence and aggression = shape expectancies of the use of violence
  • Attitude Toward the Behavior: exposure to violence and the expectations of its use influence attitude toward using aggression

Information/

Opportunities

11

12

Values/

Knowledge/

Evaluations

Expectancies

17

18

slide11

THE THEORY OF TRIADIC INFLUENCE

Levels of

Causation

Ultimate

CULTURAL

SOCIAL

BIOLOGY/

Causes

ENVIRONMENT

SITUATION

PERSONALITY

Interactions w/

Social Instits

Distal

Influences

ATTITUDES

SOCIAL

SELF-EFFICACY

TOWARD THE

NORMATIVE

BEHAVIORAL

BEHAVIOR

BELIEFS

CONTROL

Proximal

19

20

21

Predictors

22

23

Intrapersonal Stream

Social/Normative Stream

Cultural/Attitudinal Stream

Biological/Nature

Nurture/Cultural

1

2

3

4

5

6

Sense of

Information/

Interpersonal

Others’

Social

Self/Control

Opportunities

Bonding

Beh & Atts

Competence

7

8

9

10

11

12

Self

Skills:

Motivationn

Perceived

Values/

Knowledge/

Determination

Social+Generalal

to Comply

Norms

Evaluations

Expectancies

13

14

15

16

17

18

DECISIONS/INTENTIONS

Trial Behavior

EXPERIENCES: Expectancies -- Social Reinforcements -- Psychological/Physiological

11

contributions of tti for dating violence
Contributions of TTI for Dating Violence
  • Moves away from gendered perspective
  • Moves away from rigid perpetrator – victim roles
  • Moves away from victim blaming and parent blaming
  • Understand the dynamic nature of teen dating violence and the fluidity of perpetration – victim role
  • Accounts for behavioral determinants in different contexts and at different levels of influence
  • Illustrates diversity of pathways through interrelated constructs
  • Explains TDV more in line with youth aggression perspective, which is supported by the literature on dating violence
  • Provides interventionists options for program activities
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