Gcse physical education
This presentation is the property of its rightful owner.
Sponsored Links
1 / 58

GCSE PHYSICAL EDUCATION PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • 124 Views
  • Uploaded on
  • Presentation posted in: General

GCSE PHYSICAL EDUCATION. REVISION Class of 2009. Section A Training and Exercise. Reasons for taking part in physical activity. Health, Fitness and performance. Skill related fitness. Principles of Training. Methods of Training. Section B Safety and Risk Assessment in Sport:.

Download Presentation

GCSE PHYSICAL EDUCATION

An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.


- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

Presentation Transcript


Gcse physical education

GCSE PHYSICAL EDUCATION

REVISION

Class of 2009


Section a training and exercise

Section ATraining and Exercise

  • Reasons for taking part in physical activity.

  • Health, Fitness and performance.

  • Skill related fitness.

  • Principles of Training.

  • Methods of Training.


Section b safety and risk assessment in sport

Section BSafety and Risk Assessment in Sport:

  • Prevention of Injury

  • Sports Injuries


Section c anatomy and physiology

Section C: Anatomy and physiology

  • Circulatory System.

  • Respiratory System.

  • Bones

  • Joints, Tendons, Ligaments.

  • Muscles and Muscle Action.


Reasons for taking part in physical activity

Reasons for taking part in physical activity.

Reasons why take part in sport

  • Physical

  • Social

  • Psychological


Gcse physical education

Hints and Tips:In the exam you will need to be able to relate the reasons for taking part in certain sports / activities to a certain reason.Make sure you can adapt the reason you have learnt for different types of people.E.g. Saturday football team = social / personal


Different assets for different sports

Different assets for different sports

There are many different factors that affect

participation and performance. Examples

  • Body build

  • Speed

  • Endurance

  • Strength

  • Power


Hints and tips

There are six skill related fitness factors:

Agility

Balance

Co-ordination

Power

Reaction time

Speed

THINK OF DIFFERENT SPORTS AND IN WHAT ORDER THESE WOULD BE IMPORTANT.

Hints and Tips


Health exercise fitness and performance

Health, exercise, fitness and performance

Definitions:

You need to know the definitions


Health

Health

Health is a state of complete mental,

physical and social well-being not simply the absence of disease or infirmity.


Exercise

Exercise

Exercise is a form of physical activity done primarily to improve one’s health and physical fitness.


Fitness

Fitness

Fitness is the ability to meet the demands of the environment.


Performance

Performance

Performance is how well the task is

completed.


Diet and sport

Diet and Sport

Consider different dietary requirements for different sports.

Examples: Shot putter v Gymnast v Long

distance runner.


Gcse physical education

Diet

Seven factors of a balanced diet.

  • Carbohydrates

  • Fats

  • Proteins

  • Vitamins

  • Minerals

  • Water

  • Fibre

Make sure you know what we need each one for to aid performance.


Body composition

Body composition

Body composition is defined as ‘ the

percentage of body weight which is fat,

muscle and bone’


Somatotypes

Somatotypes

This is the technical name for body

type, also referred to as body build or

Physique.


Scoring body types

Scoring body types

Measurements are taken and a score is

given out of seven.

# Endomorph (fat score)

# Mesomorph (muscle score)

# Ectomorph (thinness score)

Hints and Tips: Make sure you can explain

different types of somatotypes to different sports and how this affects performance.


The principles of training

The Principles of Training

  • Consider individual needs

  • Specificity

  • Overload

  • Progression

  • Reversibility

  • Tedium


Fitt principle

FITT Principle

Frequency

Intensity

Time

Type


Methods of training

Methods of training

  • Interval training – periods of work followed by periods of rest. High intensity – good for anaerobic work.

  • Continuous training – working continuously at moderate to slow speed.

  • Fartlek – (speedplay) Running at various speeds over varying distances and terrain.

  • Circuit – variety of exercises in a circuit.


Muscular strength and muscular endurance

Muscular strength and muscular endurance

  • Muscular strength is the ability of the muscles to exert force, or the amount of force required to produce a single maximum effort. E.g. Weight lifting

  • Muscular endurance is the ability to use the voluntary muscles many times without getting tired.


Section b safety and risk assessment in sport1

Section B:Safety and Risk Assessment in Sport

  • Prevention of Injury.

  • Sports Injuries


Risk and safety aspects associated with taking part in sport

Risk and safety aspects associated with taking part in sport

Injuries happen in sport happen, but can

be reduced through:

  • Obeying the rules

  • Correct clothing and equipment

  • Balanced competition

  • Warming Up and cooling down


Sports injuries

Sports Injuries

Injuries to joints:

  • twisted ankle joints

  • dislocations

  • torn cartilage

  • overuse injuries – tennis elbow, golf elbow

    Hints and Tips: Make sure you can recognise

    the signs and symptoms of these types of

    injuries.


Skin damage

Skin damage

  • Cuts

  • Grazes

  • Blisters

  • Bruises


Gcse physical education

RICE

  • R – Rest

  • I – Ice

  • C – Compression

  • E - Elevate


Hypothermia dehydration unconsciousness concussion

Hypothermia, Dehydration, Unconsciousness, Concussion.

  • Hypothermia – body temp falls below 35 c

  • Dehydration – occurs during long duration or extreme heat conditions. Recognised by tiredness, nausea and dizziness.

  • Unconsciousness – caused by reduced supply of blood, heart attack, stroke, shock, hypothermia, epilepsy, suffocation or drowning

  • Causes – blows to the head or the jaw.

  • Concussion – occurs normally when there is a blow to the head, maybe become unconscious, cold and have a high pulse rate.


Section c anatomy and physiology1

Section C: Anatomy and physiology

  • Circulatory system

  • Respiratory System

  • Bones

  • Joints Tendons Ligaments

  • Muscles and Muscle Action


The heart

The Heart

  • The components of the heart.

  • The Blood Vessels

  • The pathway of the Blood


The parts of the heart

The parts of the Heart

REMEMBER L O R D = Left Oxygenated Right Deoxygenated

RIGHTLEFT

Aorta

Vena Cava

Pulmonary Artery

Semi Lunar Valve

Pulmonary Veins

Right Atrium

Left Atrium

Bicuspid Valve

Right Ventricle

Left Ventricle

Vena Cava

Semi Lunar Valve


Blood vessels

Blood Vessels

Capillaries = Smallest of all vessels.

Arteries = Oxygenated Blood, thick elastic

walls, small Lumen.

Veins = Deoxygenated Blood, Valves,

large Lumen.


Where the blood goes

Where the blood goes

Blood is pumped away from the heart by 2

routes.

# one route to the lungs

# the other to the working muscles (body)

Hints and Tips: Learn the anatomy of the

heart – atrium, ventricles, valves and blood

direction.


The pulmonary system to the lungs

The Pulmonary system = To the lungs

De-oxygenated blood:

right atrium – through the vena cava –

tricuspid valve – right ventricle – into

pulmonary system – lungs – back to the

heart as oxygenated blood.


The systemic system to the heart

The systemic system = to the Heart

Oxygenated Blood:

Left atrium – oxygenated blood – bicuspid

valve – left ventricle – semi lunar valve – out

of aorta – to working body.

Hints and Tips: If its going away from the

heart, it starts with an A.

If its going to the heart it starts with a V.


Stroke volume

Stroke volume

The amount of blood pumped by the heart with each beat

(EACH STROKE OF THE HEART)

As you get fitter your Stroke Volume Increases.


Cardiac output

Cardiac Output

the amount of blood pumped by the heart each minute

CO = HR x SV

As you get fitter your Cardiac Output Increases.


Heart rate

Heart Rate

Heart rate – the number of times the heart beats PER MINUTE

The fitter you get the lower your resting

Pulse. Also your recovery rate decreases.


Tests for cardiovascular fitness

Tests for cardiovascular fitness

  • Multi stage fitness test (Bleep test)

  • Cooper 12 minute run test

  • Harvard step test

    Hints and Tips: Know what resting HR,

    working HR and recovery rates mean.


Respiratory fitness

Respiratory fitness

  • Breathing

  • Passage of air

  • Alveoli

  • Gaseous exchange

  • Respiration and Sport


Passage of air

Passage of air

  • Through the nose which filters and warms the air.

  • Trachea – bronchus – bronchioles - alveoli


Alveoli and gaseous exchange

Alveoli and gaseous exchange

  • Alveoli – contact with capillaries – oxygen delivered to working muscles – carbon dioxide taken out.

    Hints and Tips: Understand and explain

    gaseous exchange and relate it to sporting situations.


The effects of exercise

The effects of exercise

  • faster heart rate

  • quicker and deeper breathing

  • rise in body temperature

  • sweating

  • muscle ache

    Hints and Tips: explain why these happen and

    link these effects to the respiratory system.


Exercise aerobic and anaerobic exercise

Exercise – Aerobic and Anaerobic exercise

  • Both systems improve with training.

  • Aerobic improvements in endurance.

  • Anaerobic improvements in events requiring short bursts of energy.


Bones

Bones

  • Types of bones according to their function

  • Bones of the vertebrae


The four functions of the skeleton

The Four Functions Of The Skeleton

1. Support

2. Protection

3. Movement

4. Shape


The types of bones

The Types Of Bones

Long Bones:Flat Bones:

Short Bones:Irregular Bones:

Humerus, Femur, Tibia, Metacarpals, Metatarsals etc.

Cranium (skull), Pelvis, Scapula, Ribs etc.

Vertebrae , facial bones.

Tarsals, Carpals, etc.


The vertebral column spine

The vertebral Column / Spine

Try to remember:

Call

The

Ladies

Something

Clever

mmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmm

This is where the ribs are attached.

mmm


Joints

Joints

A joint is where two or more bones meet.

  • Different types of joints

  • Synovial joints

  • Movement possibilities


Synovial joints

Synovial joints

Ball and Socket

Hinge

Gliding

Condyloid

Pivot


Types of joint movement

Types of joint movement

  • Extension = Opening a joint

  • Flexion = Closing a joint

  • Adduction = Moving towards an imaginary centre line

  • Abduction = Moving away from an imaginary centre line

  • Rotation= Turning a limb clockwise or anti-clockwise.

    Learn these and relate them to actual actions


Ligaments

Ligaments

Ligaments = Bone to Bone


Tendons

Tendons

Voluntary Muscles are attached

to the bones by Tendons


Muscles

Muscles

3 Types of Muscles

  • Voluntary

  • Involuntary

  • Cardiac


Muscle fibres

Muscle fibres

  • Fast twitch (work quickly but also tire quickly)

  • Slow twitch( rich in oxygen, work for long periods)

    Hints and Tips:

    Hypertrophy - when muscles get bigger

    Atrophy - when muscles get smaller.


Muscles1

Muscles

You have to locate the following:

  • Deltoids

  • Pectoralis major

  • Biceps

  • Abdominals

  • Quadriceps

  • Trapezius

  • Triceps

  • Latissimus Dorsi

  • Gluteus Maximus

  • Hamstrings

  • Gastrocnemius


How muscles work

How Muscles Work

Muscle can only create movement in ONE direction e.g. the bicep contracts and causes flexion (the muscle becomes shorter) This is called the Agonist.

Bicep

This means that at every joint there has to be TWO muscles so that they can move in TWO directions. The second is called the Antagonist.

Flexion


Types of muscle contraction

Types of Muscle Contraction

Two Types of Contraction:

Isometric – NO MOVEMENT, the muscle stays the same length. Give an example of an action that causes isometric contraction, and name the muscle.

Isotonic – Muscle changes Length, Eccentric when it gets longer and Concentric when it gets shorter.

Give an example and name the muscles.


  • Login