GCSE PHYSICAL EDUCATION. REVISION Class of 2009. Section A Training and Exercise. Reasons for taking part in physical activity. Health, Fitness and performance. Skill related fitness. Principles of Training. Methods of Training. Section B Safety and Risk Assessment in Sport:.
Class of 2009
Reasons why take part in sport
Hints and Tips:In the exam you will need to be able to relate the reasons for taking part in certain sports / activities to a certain reason.Make sure you can adapt the reason you have learnt for different types of people.E.g. Saturday football team = social / personal
There are many different factors that affect
participation and performance. Examples
THINK OF DIFFERENT SPORTS AND IN WHAT ORDER THESE WOULD BE IMPORTANT.Hints and Tips
You need to know the definitions
Health is a state of complete mental,
physical and social well-being not simply the absence of disease or infirmity.
Exercise is a form of physical activity done primarily to improve one’s health and physical fitness.
Fitness is the ability to meet the demands of the environment.
Performance is how well the task is
Consider different dietary requirements for different sports.
Examples: Shot putter v Gymnast v Long
Seven factors of a balanced diet.
Make sure you know what we need each one for to aid performance.
Body composition is defined as ‘ the
percentage of body weight which is fat,
muscle and bone’
This is the technical name for body
type, also referred to as body build or
Measurements are taken and a score is
given out of seven.
# Endomorph (fat score)
# Mesomorph (muscle score)
# Ectomorph (thinness score)
Hints and Tips: Make sure you can explain
different types of somatotypes to different sports and how this affects performance.
Injuries happen in sport happen, but can
be reduced through:
Injuries to joints:
Hints and Tips: Make sure you can recognise
the signs and symptoms of these types of
REMEMBER L O R D = Left Oxygenated Right Deoxygenated
Semi Lunar Valve
Semi Lunar Valve
Capillaries = Smallest of all vessels.
Arteries = Oxygenated Blood, thick elastic
walls, small Lumen.
Veins = Deoxygenated Blood, Valves,
Blood is pumped away from the heart by 2
# one route to the lungs
# the other to the working muscles (body)
Hints and Tips: Learn the anatomy of the
heart – atrium, ventricles, valves and blood
right atrium – through the vena cava –
tricuspid valve – right ventricle – into
pulmonary system – lungs – back to the
heart as oxygenated blood.
Left atrium – oxygenated blood – bicuspid
valve – left ventricle – semi lunar valve – out
of aorta – to working body.
Hints and Tips: If its going away from the
heart, it starts with an A.
If its going to the heart it starts with a V.
The amount of blood pumped by the heart with each beat
(EACH STROKE OF THE HEART)
As you get fitter your Stroke Volume Increases.
the amount of blood pumped by the heart each minute
CO = HR x SV
As you get fitter your Cardiac Output Increases.
Heart rate – the number of times the heart beats PER MINUTE
The fitter you get the lower your resting
Pulse. Also your recovery rate decreases.
Hints and Tips: Know what resting HR,
working HR and recovery rates mean.
Hints and Tips: Understand and explain
gaseous exchange and relate it to sporting situations.
Hints and Tips: explain why these happen and
link these effects to the respiratory system.
Long Bones:Flat Bones:
Short Bones:Irregular Bones:
Humerus, Femur, Tibia, Metacarpals, Metatarsals etc.
Cranium (skull), Pelvis, Scapula, Ribs etc.
Vertebrae , facial bones.
Tarsals, Carpals, etc.
Try to remember:
This is where the ribs are attached.
A joint is where two or more bones meet.
Ball and Socket
Learn these and relate them to actual actions
Ligaments = Bone to Bone
Voluntary Muscles are attached
to the bones by Tendons
3 Types of Muscles
Hints and Tips:
Hypertrophy - when muscles get bigger
Atrophy - when muscles get smaller.
You have to locate the following:
Muscle can only create movement in ONE direction e.g. the bicep contracts and causes flexion (the muscle becomes shorter) This is called the Agonist.
This means that at every joint there has to be TWO muscles so that they can move in TWO directions. The second is called the Antagonist.
Two Types of Contraction:
Isometric – NO MOVEMENT, the muscle stays the same length. Give an example of an action that causes isometric contraction, and name the muscle.
Isotonic – Muscle changes Length, Eccentric when it gets longer and Concentric when it gets shorter.
Give an example and name the muscles.