Malaise 1974 1980
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MALAISE 1974-1980. EUGENIA LANGAN MATER ACADEMY CHARTER HIGH SCHOOL HIALEAH GARDENS, FLORIDA ( TALKING HEADS, "THE BIG COUNTRY"). ESSENTIAL QUESTIONS: TODAY WHY MALAISE? WHAT LED TO THE CONSERVATIVE REVOLUTION OF 1980? LONG-RANGE

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MALAISE 1974-1980

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Malaise 1974 1980

MALAISE1974-1980

EUGENIA LANGAN

MATER ACADEMY CHARTER HIGH SCHOOL

HIALEAH GARDENS, FLORIDA

(TALKING HEADS, "THE BIG COUNTRY")


Malaise 1974 1980

  • ESSENTIAL QUESTIONS:

  • TODAY

  • WHY MALAISE?

  • WHAT LED TO THE CONSERVATIVE REVOLUTION OF 1980?

  • LONG-RANGE

  • HOW HAS THE AMERICAN IDENTITY (SELF-IMAGE) CHANGED THROUGHOUT OUR HISTORY, AND WHY?

  • WHEN DID THE ERA OF PROGRESSIVE REFORM BEGIN AND END, AND WHY?


Malaise 1974 1980

  • WE WENT THROUGH THE VERY DIVISIVE AND VIOLENT 1960s

  • WE LOST A WAR FOR THE FIRST TIME

  • A PRESIDENT AND VICE PRESIDENT WERE FORCED TO RESIGN FOR THE FIRST TIME

  • CREDIBILITY GAP

  • WOUND UP WITH UNELECTED PRESIDENT, VEEP - ONE TERM

  • THEN INEXPERIENCED CHANGE PRESIDENT – ONE TERM

  • AS ALWAYS, "IT'S THE ECONOMY, STUPID!"

  • BUT INSTEAD OF GROWING MORE RADICAL, MOST PEOPLE GREW MORE CONSERVATIVE


Richard nixon

Richard Nixon


Malaise 1974 1980

  • GERALD W. FORD – ONE TERM!

  • UNELECTED

  • NIXON PARDON

  • OPEC OIL EMBARGO

  • INFLATION/ STAGFLATION

  • RECESSION OF 1974

  • WIN

  • FED INCREASED INTEREST RATES

  • TAX CUTS "TO CREATE JOBS"

  •  DEFICITS!

  •  MORE WOMEN AND CHILDREN WORKING


The checkers speech

The “Checkers” Speech


Malaise 1974 1980

  • 1971 – 70 -- DÉTENTE

  • 1. NIXON, TAKING THE ADVICE OF HIS SECRETARY OF STATE HENRY KISSINGER, VISITED CHINA IN 1971 AND RUSSIA IN 1972 TO OPEN MORE FRIENDLY DIPLOMATIC RELATIONS AND BEGIN U.S. TRADE RELATIONS WITH CHINA AND THE SOVIET UNION.

  • 2. THIS POLICY IS KNOWN AS DÉTENTE, A FRENCH WORD THAT MEANS RELAXATION, AS OF TENSION.

  • 3. THIS LED TO A SERIES OF NUCLEAR TEST BAN AND NON-PROLIFERATION TREATIES, ETC., WITH THE TWO COMMUNIST POWERS.

  • 4. AFTER THIS THERE WAS LITTLE RISK THAT THE COLD WAR WOULD BECOME HOT, BUT IT WAS NOT OVER.


Malaise 1974 1980

Nixon in peking with our pal mao and in moscow with our pal leonidbrezhnev


Malaise 1974 1980

  • DOMESTIC POLICY/ ISSUES

  • “NEW FEDERALISM” – GOAL = DISMANTLE GREAT SOCIETY, MORE STATE CONTROL, “REVENUE SHARING”

  • DEM. CONGRESS – NOT MUCH SUCCESS – BUT VETOES OF PUBLIC WORKS

  • BUT:

  • NATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL POLICY ACT (1970)

  • OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ACT (1970)

  • AMTRAK 1970


Malaise 1974 1980

Stagflation – Inflation + high unemployment

NIXON STARTED OUT IN MILTON FRIEDMAN SCHOOL, BECAME “KEYNESIAN” BIG SPENDER. $23.3 BILLION BUDGET – BUT TAX CUTS, LOWER INTEREST RATES, WAGE FREEZES, COLAS, “STOCKPILING DEMAND”  BEGINNING OF STAGFLATION, TRADE DEFICIT


Watergate

Watergate


Malaise 1974 1980

  • CREEP (COMMITTEE TO RE-ELECT THE PRESIDENT) OPERATIVES BREAK INTO DEMOCRATIC NATIONAL COMMITTEE HQ JUNE 17, 1982

  • WASHINGTON POST STORIES REVEAL CREEP INVOLVEMENT, WH STAFF INVOLVEMENT JULY-AUGUST 1972 – JUST THREE MONTHS BEFORE 1972 ELECTION


Malaise 1974 1980

CARL BERNSTEIN AND BOB WOODWARD

MARK “DEEP THROAT” FELD

G. GORDON LIDDY


Malaise 1974 1980

JOHN EHRLICHMAN, BOB HALDEMAN AND

ATTORNEY GENERAL JOHN MITCHELL WITH HIS CHATTY WIFE, MARTHA

ALL THREE MEN WENT TO PRISON


Malaise 1974 1980

TRICKY DICK ASSERTS, “I AM NOT A CROOK”


Malaise 1974 1980

  • SEPTEMBER 1972: INDICTMENTS OF BURGLARS, CREEP – ALL OVER MEDIA THAT ATTORNEY GENERAL JOHN MITCHELL INVOLVED (SLUSH FUND)

  • BUT: PRESIDENTIAL ELECTION, 1972 -- LANDSLIDE


Malaise 1974 1980

THE “SNITCH”: WHITE HOUSE COUNSEL JOHN DEAN:

“THERE IS A CANCER ON THE PRESIDENCY”


Malaise 1974 1980

Senate Select Committees on Campaign PracticEs, Chairman Sam Ervin, D-NC - TELEVISED HEARINGS MARCH 23 – EVERYONE GLUED TO TV!


Malaise 1974 1980

  • IN TRIAL OF BURGLARS, JUDGE JOHN SIRICA SUBPOENAED WHITE HOUSE TAPES – NIXON REFUSED


Malaise 1974 1980

JUDGE JOHN SIRICA AKA “MAXIMUM BOB” – NO SLACK FOR CRIMINALS IN HIS COURTROOM!


Malaise 1974 1980

  • UNITED STATES V. NIXON, 1974. BURGER COURT! SUPREME COURT REJECTED NIXON’S CLAM OF “EXECUTIVE PRIVILEGE”  NIXON HAD TO TURN OVER TAPES,

  • WHOOPS! 18-MINUTE GAP IN “SMOKING GUN” TAPE!

NIXON’S SECRETARY ROSE MARIE WOODS DEMONSTRATES HOW SHE COULD HAVE ERASED PART OF TAPE ACCIDENTALLY


But the smoking gun tape wasn t erased

BUT “THE Smoking Gun” TAPE WASN’T ERASED!

  • June 23, 1972 White House tape: Nixon orders FBI to call off investigation of Watergate, Claims Watergate a CIA covert operation

  • Other tapes show Nixon approved of payment of “hush money”


Resignation

Resignation


Farewell

Farewell


Malaise 1974 1980

WHY DID THE PUBLIC TURN ON NIXON? NOTE THAT HIS POPULARITY BEGAN TO WANE RIGHT AFTER THE VIETNAM ACCORD


Malaise 1974 1980

  • GERALD R. FORD

  • PARDONED NIXON

  • TRICKLE-DOWN ATTEMPT TO DEFEAT STAGFLATION

  • UNEMPLOYMENT UP, WAGES DOWN  MORE “TWO EARNER” COUPLES (MORE WOMEN WORKING)

  • AID TO SADDAM HUSSEIN IN IRAN-IRAQ WAR


Malaise 1974 1980

FORD’S RATIONALE FOR PARDONING NIXON

“After years of bitter controversy and divisive national debate, I have been advised, and I am compelled to conclude that many months and perhaps more years will have to pass before Richard Nixon could obtain a fair trial by jury in any jurisdiction of the United States under governing decisions of the Supreme Court.

During this long period of delay and potential litigation, ugly passions would again be aroused. And our people would again be polarized in their opinions. And the credibility of our free institutions of government would again be challenged at home and abroad.”


Malaise 1974 1980

REAL WAGES PEAKED IN 1974 AND DECLINED UNTIL 1982 – NOTE THEY HAVE NEVER RETURNED TO '74 LEVEL


Malaise 1974 1980

REMEMBER THIS CHART? % 0F NATIONAL WEALTH HELD BY TOP 1% WEALTHIEST INDIVIDUALS: NOTE THE TREND SINCE MID-1970s. TODAY TOP 10% HOLD 75%, TOP 1% HOLD 40.4 (DUE TO BUSH TAX CUTS, GREAT RECESSION OF 2007 AND BANK/ CORPORATE BAILOUTS)


Malaise 1974 1980

INCOME DISTRIBUTION


Malaise 1974 1980

OIL PRICES -- WHEN THEY GO UP SO DO THE PRICES OF ALMOST ALL OTHER GOODS (ALL THAT MUST BE TRANSPORTED!)

1973 – OPEC OIL EMBARGO

1979 – OIL CRISIS DUE TO IRANIAN REVOLUTION

DOUBLE-DIGIT INFLATION


Malaise 1974 1980

OVER DECADES from 1970s – GDP FLAT AND MODEST. FLAT GDP + HIGH INFLATION = "STAGFLATION"


Malaise 1974 1980

DECLINE OF SKILLED INDUSTRIAL JOBS – DUE TO DECLINE OF SOME INDUSTRIES IN U.S. AND TO TECHNOLOGY


Malaise 1974 1980

'74-76 – EFFECT OF FORD TAX CUTS W/ NO SPENDING CUTS


Malaise 1974 1980

"WHIP INFLATION NOW" – FORD DECLARED INFLATION "PUBLIC ENEMY NUMBER ONE" – AND ENCOURAGED THE PUBLIC TO FIX IT! = A FAILURE

"STUPID IDEA" ACCORDING TO ALAN GREENSPAN


Malaise 1974 1980

  • THE HUMILIATING LOSS OF THE VIETNAM WAR

April 30, 1975

U.S. EVACUATES SAIGON EMBASSY – THROUGH THE ROOF INTO HELICOPTERS WITH NORTH VIETNAM ARMY AT THE GATE!


The costs of the vietnam war

The Costs OF THE VIETNAM WAR

  • 3,000,000 Vietnamese killed

  • 58,000 Americans killed; 300,000 wounded – 2,583 POW/ MIA (STILL)

  • Under-funding of Great Society programs

  • $150,000,000,000 in U.S. spending

  • U.S. morale, self-confidence, trust of government, decimated -- WE LOST A WAR!


Malaise 1974 1980

58,000 DEAD - FOR NOTHING


Malaise 1974 1980

1976: JIMMY CARTER AND WALTER MONDALE (ONLY 50.1% OF POPULAR VOTE)

CARTER'S MAIN QUALIFICATION: NOT A WASHINGTON INSIDER (GEORGIA GOVERNOR, PEANUNT FARMER AND NUCLEAR ENGINEER)


Malaise 1974 1980

“HUMBLE” CARTER: WALKING TO THE INAUGURATION


Malaise 1974 1980

THE SWEATER, THE FIRESIDE CHATS, WORE JEANS


Malaise 1974 1980

  • CARTER:

  • ENERGY CRISIS: "MEOW" – THE MORAL EQUIVALENT OF WAR

  • DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY, 1977

  • national energy act, 1978

  • DEREGULATION OF OIL PRICES, TAX SUBSIDIES (ENERGY POLICY ACT)

  • 1979 – WINDFALL oil PROFITS TAX (excise tax)

  • surface coal mining and reclamation act.

  • Opposition to nuclear energy


Malaise 1974 1980

  • Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 (CERCLA) -- superfund

  • deregulation of TRANSPORTATION RATES (STAGGERS RAIL ACT, 1979, MOTOR CARRIER ACT, 1980)

  • WORSE INFLATION – in 1979 FED under paulvolcker IMPOSED DOUBLE-DIGIT INTEREST RATES ( SLOWDOWN but controlled inflation during reagan era)

  • RECESSION, 1978

  • PANAMA CANAL TREATY, 1978

  • IRANIAN REVOLUTION, 1979


Malaise 1974 1980

  • 1979: “THE MALAISE SPEECH” – phd 29-9. american identity! Carter said nation was strong militarily and economically, but a major threat was:

  • “crisis of confidence” and of “national will” – “loss of unity of purpose of our nation”

  • “erosion of our confidence in the future” -- most people thought future would be worse than present, didn’t bother to vote


Malaise 1974 1980

  • “In a nation that was proud of hard work, strong families, close-knit communities, and our faith in God, too many of us now tend to worship self-indulgence and consumption. Human identity is no longer defined by what one does, but by what one owns. But we've discovered that owning things and consuming things does not satisfy our longing for meaning.”


Malaise 1974 1980

  • carter’s proposed solution?

  • “have faith” – pull together.

  • Save energy:

  • Use carpools, turn down thermostat, don’t take unnecessary trips, etc.


Malaise 1974 1980

  • HOSTAGE CRISIS AND BOTCHED RESCUE ATTEMPT, 1980


Malaise 1974 1980

National organization for the reform of marijuana laws, 1970 - present

Illegal drugs, especially marijuana, remained very popular AND MOSTLY TOLERATED in the 1970s (ACROSS AGE AND SOCIAL LINE) BUT BY END OF DECADE MORE AMERICANS (≈ 70% TOLD POLLSTERS THAT DRUGS WERE A PROBLEM IN SOCIETY


Malaise 1974 1980

PAST DRUG USE, YOUNG ADULTS 18-25, 1974 – 1993 (WHAT PEOPLE WILL ADMIT!)


Malaise 1974 1980

RONALD REAGAN: MOVIE ACTOR, TV STAR AND GOVERNOR OF CALIFORNIA


Malaise 1974 1980

Election of 1980: ronaldreagan, georgeh.w. bush, 50.7% of popular vote, carter/ mondale 41%


Malaise 1974 1980

RONALD REAGAN: MOVIE ACTOR, TV STAR AND GOVERNOR OF CALIFORNIA


Malaise 1974 1980

  • ELECTION OF 1980

  • REAGAN POSITIONS:

  • ECONOMY:

  • "SUPPLY-SIDE" ECONOMICS – CUT TAXES  STIMULATE BUSINESS AND EFFECTS WOULD "TRICKLE-DOWN" TO CREATE JOBS AND PROSPERITY FOR EVERYONE

  • DISMANTLE GREAT SOCIETY, MORE POWER TO STATES ("NEW FEDERALISM") AND BALANCE BUDGET

  • IRAN HOSTAGE CRISIS: GET THEM FREED

  • FOREIGN POLICY: INCREASE MILITARY AGAINST "EVIL EMPIRE"


Malaise 1974 1980

  • WOMEN'S RIGHTS:

  • OPPOSED ABORTION (ABOUT WHICH PRESIDENTS CAN DO NOTHING

  • NEITHER PRESIDENTS NOR MEMBERS OF CONGRESS NOR STATE POLITICIANS CAN BAN ABORTION -- WHY DO THEY ALWAYS HAVE TO TAKE POSITIONS ON IT IN CAMPAIGNS?

  • PROMISED TO APPOINT WOMAN SUPREME COURT JUSTICE

  • SCHOOL PRAYER: SUPPORTED IT – SAME QUESTION AS ABOUT ABORTION!


Malaise 1974 1980

Morning in america?


Malaise 1974 1980

IDENTIFY AND ANALYZE THE POLITICAL, SOCIAL, ECONOMIC AND DEMOGRAPHIC, FACTORS LEADING TO THE "CONSERVATIVE REVOLUTION" OF 1980.

GO TO THE BOARD AND WRITE THE REASONS!


Malaise 1974 1980

SEVENTIES POP CULTURE -- MUSIC


Malaise 1974 1980

70s MUSIC – DISCO = DANCE MUSIC.

Dancing very popular (compare great depression)

The bee gees – "stayin' alive," "more than a woman"

Thelma houston, "don't leave me this waY"


Malaise 1974 1980

BIGGEST ROCK STAR OF 70s:

THE BOSS

BRUCE SPRINSTEEN

“BORN TO RUN”

LISTEN TO LYRICS – THEY’RE GLOOMY, REFLECT MALAISE OF THE PERIOD


Malaise 1974 1980

COUNTRY ROCK – REFLECTS INCREASES INFLUENCE OF THE SUN BELT

THE EAGLES

MOST POPULAR EVEN THOUGH THEY ARE UNORIGINAL AND SUCK

“TAKE IT TO THE LIMIT”


Malaise 1974 1980

HEAVY METAL – LED ZEPPELIN


Malaise 1974 1980

New wave (counter-cultural) included the talking heads

And laurieanderson.

"o superman"


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