Malaise 1974 1980
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MALAISE 1974-1980. EUGENIA LANGAN MATER ACADEMY CHARTER HIGH SCHOOL HIALEAH GARDENS, FLORIDA ( TALKING HEADS, "THE BIG COUNTRY"). ESSENTIAL QUESTIONS: TODAY WHY MALAISE? WHAT LED TO THE CONSERVATIVE REVOLUTION OF 1980? LONG-RANGE

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MALAISE 1974-1980

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MALAISE1974-1980

EUGENIA LANGAN

MATER ACADEMY CHARTER HIGH SCHOOL

HIALEAH GARDENS, FLORIDA

(TALKING HEADS, "THE BIG COUNTRY")


  • ESSENTIAL QUESTIONS:

  • TODAY

  • WHY MALAISE?

  • WHAT LED TO THE CONSERVATIVE REVOLUTION OF 1980?

  • LONG-RANGE

  • HOW HAS THE AMERICAN IDENTITY (SELF-IMAGE) CHANGED THROUGHOUT OUR HISTORY, AND WHY?

  • WHEN DID THE ERA OF PROGRESSIVE REFORM BEGIN AND END, AND WHY?


  • WE WENT THROUGH THE VERY DIVISIVE AND VIOLENT 1960s

  • WE LOST A WAR FOR THE FIRST TIME

  • A PRESIDENT AND VICE PRESIDENT WERE FORCED TO RESIGN FOR THE FIRST TIME

  • CREDIBILITY GAP

  • WOUND UP WITH UNELECTED PRESIDENT, VEEP - ONE TERM

  • THEN INEXPERIENCED CHANGE PRESIDENT – ONE TERM

  • AS ALWAYS, "IT'S THE ECONOMY, STUPID!"

  • BUT INSTEAD OF GROWING MORE RADICAL, MOST PEOPLE GREW MORE CONSERVATIVE


Richard Nixon


  • GERALD W. FORD – ONE TERM!

  • UNELECTED

  • NIXON PARDON

  • OPEC OIL EMBARGO

  • INFLATION/ STAGFLATION

  • RECESSION OF 1974

  • WIN

  • FED INCREASED INTEREST RATES

  • TAX CUTS "TO CREATE JOBS"

  •  DEFICITS!

  •  MORE WOMEN AND CHILDREN WORKING


The “Checkers” Speech


  • 1971 – 70 -- DÉTENTE

  • 1. NIXON, TAKING THE ADVICE OF HIS SECRETARY OF STATE HENRY KISSINGER, VISITED CHINA IN 1971 AND RUSSIA IN 1972 TO OPEN MORE FRIENDLY DIPLOMATIC RELATIONS AND BEGIN U.S. TRADE RELATIONS WITH CHINA AND THE SOVIET UNION.

  • 2. THIS POLICY IS KNOWN AS DÉTENTE, A FRENCH WORD THAT MEANS RELAXATION, AS OF TENSION.

  • 3. THIS LED TO A SERIES OF NUCLEAR TEST BAN AND NON-PROLIFERATION TREATIES, ETC., WITH THE TWO COMMUNIST POWERS.

  • 4. AFTER THIS THERE WAS LITTLE RISK THAT THE COLD WAR WOULD BECOME HOT, BUT IT WAS NOT OVER.


Nixon in peking with our pal mao and in moscow with our pal leonidbrezhnev


  • DOMESTIC POLICY/ ISSUES

  • “NEW FEDERALISM” – GOAL = DISMANTLE GREAT SOCIETY, MORE STATE CONTROL, “REVENUE SHARING”

  • DEM. CONGRESS – NOT MUCH SUCCESS – BUT VETOES OF PUBLIC WORKS

  • BUT:

  • NATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL POLICY ACT (1970)

  • OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ACT (1970)

  • AMTRAK 1970


Stagflation – Inflation + high unemployment

NIXON STARTED OUT IN MILTON FRIEDMAN SCHOOL, BECAME “KEYNESIAN” BIG SPENDER. $23.3 BILLION BUDGET – BUT TAX CUTS, LOWER INTEREST RATES, WAGE FREEZES, COLAS, “STOCKPILING DEMAND”  BEGINNING OF STAGFLATION, TRADE DEFICIT


Watergate


  • CREEP (COMMITTEE TO RE-ELECT THE PRESIDENT) OPERATIVES BREAK INTO DEMOCRATIC NATIONAL COMMITTEE HQ JUNE 17, 1982

  • WASHINGTON POST STORIES REVEAL CREEP INVOLVEMENT, WH STAFF INVOLVEMENT JULY-AUGUST 1972 – JUST THREE MONTHS BEFORE 1972 ELECTION


CARL BERNSTEIN AND BOB WOODWARD

MARK “DEEP THROAT” FELD

G. GORDON LIDDY


JOHN EHRLICHMAN, BOB HALDEMAN AND

ATTORNEY GENERAL JOHN MITCHELL WITH HIS CHATTY WIFE, MARTHA

ALL THREE MEN WENT TO PRISON


TRICKY DICK ASSERTS, “I AM NOT A CROOK”


  • SEPTEMBER 1972: INDICTMENTS OF BURGLARS, CREEP – ALL OVER MEDIA THAT ATTORNEY GENERAL JOHN MITCHELL INVOLVED (SLUSH FUND)

  • BUT: PRESIDENTIAL ELECTION, 1972 -- LANDSLIDE


THE “SNITCH”: WHITE HOUSE COUNSEL JOHN DEAN:

“THERE IS A CANCER ON THE PRESIDENCY”


Senate Select Committees on Campaign PracticEs, Chairman Sam Ervin, D-NC - TELEVISED HEARINGS MARCH 23 – EVERYONE GLUED TO TV!


  • IN TRIAL OF BURGLARS, JUDGE JOHN SIRICA SUBPOENAED WHITE HOUSE TAPES – NIXON REFUSED


JUDGE JOHN SIRICA AKA “MAXIMUM BOB” – NO SLACK FOR CRIMINALS IN HIS COURTROOM!


  • UNITED STATES V. NIXON, 1974. BURGER COURT! SUPREME COURT REJECTED NIXON’S CLAM OF “EXECUTIVE PRIVILEGE”  NIXON HAD TO TURN OVER TAPES,

  • WHOOPS! 18-MINUTE GAP IN “SMOKING GUN” TAPE!

NIXON’S SECRETARY ROSE MARIE WOODS DEMONSTRATES HOW SHE COULD HAVE ERASED PART OF TAPE ACCIDENTALLY


BUT “THE Smoking Gun” TAPE WASN’T ERASED!

  • June 23, 1972 White House tape: Nixon orders FBI to call off investigation of Watergate, Claims Watergate a CIA covert operation

  • Other tapes show Nixon approved of payment of “hush money”


Resignation


Farewell


WHY DID THE PUBLIC TURN ON NIXON? NOTE THAT HIS POPULARITY BEGAN TO WANE RIGHT AFTER THE VIETNAM ACCORD


  • GERALD R. FORD

  • PARDONED NIXON

  • TRICKLE-DOWN ATTEMPT TO DEFEAT STAGFLATION

  • UNEMPLOYMENT UP, WAGES DOWN  MORE “TWO EARNER” COUPLES (MORE WOMEN WORKING)

  • AID TO SADDAM HUSSEIN IN IRAN-IRAQ WAR


FORD’S RATIONALE FOR PARDONING NIXON

“After years of bitter controversy and divisive national debate, I have been advised, and I am compelled to conclude that many months and perhaps more years will have to pass before Richard Nixon could obtain a fair trial by jury in any jurisdiction of the United States under governing decisions of the Supreme Court.

During this long period of delay and potential litigation, ugly passions would again be aroused. And our people would again be polarized in their opinions. And the credibility of our free institutions of government would again be challenged at home and abroad.”


REAL WAGES PEAKED IN 1974 AND DECLINED UNTIL 1982 – NOTE THEY HAVE NEVER RETURNED TO '74 LEVEL


REMEMBER THIS CHART? % 0F NATIONAL WEALTH HELD BY TOP 1% WEALTHIEST INDIVIDUALS: NOTE THE TREND SINCE MID-1970s. TODAY TOP 10% HOLD 75%, TOP 1% HOLD 40.4 (DUE TO BUSH TAX CUTS, GREAT RECESSION OF 2007 AND BANK/ CORPORATE BAILOUTS)


INCOME DISTRIBUTION


OIL PRICES -- WHEN THEY GO UP SO DO THE PRICES OF ALMOST ALL OTHER GOODS (ALL THAT MUST BE TRANSPORTED!)

1973 – OPEC OIL EMBARGO

1979 – OIL CRISIS DUE TO IRANIAN REVOLUTION

DOUBLE-DIGIT INFLATION


OVER DECADES from 1970s – GDP FLAT AND MODEST. FLAT GDP + HIGH INFLATION = "STAGFLATION"


DECLINE OF SKILLED INDUSTRIAL JOBS – DUE TO DECLINE OF SOME INDUSTRIES IN U.S. AND TO TECHNOLOGY


'74-76 – EFFECT OF FORD TAX CUTS W/ NO SPENDING CUTS


"WHIP INFLATION NOW" – FORD DECLARED INFLATION "PUBLIC ENEMY NUMBER ONE" – AND ENCOURAGED THE PUBLIC TO FIX IT! = A FAILURE

"STUPID IDEA" ACCORDING TO ALAN GREENSPAN


  • THE HUMILIATING LOSS OF THE VIETNAM WAR

April 30, 1975

U.S. EVACUATES SAIGON EMBASSY – THROUGH THE ROOF INTO HELICOPTERS WITH NORTH VIETNAM ARMY AT THE GATE!


The Costs OF THE VIETNAM WAR

  • 3,000,000 Vietnamese killed

  • 58,000 Americans killed; 300,000 wounded – 2,583 POW/ MIA (STILL)

  • Under-funding of Great Society programs

  • $150,000,000,000 in U.S. spending

  • U.S. morale, self-confidence, trust of government, decimated -- WE LOST A WAR!


58,000 DEAD - FOR NOTHING


1976: JIMMY CARTER AND WALTER MONDALE (ONLY 50.1% OF POPULAR VOTE)

CARTER'S MAIN QUALIFICATION: NOT A WASHINGTON INSIDER (GEORGIA GOVERNOR, PEANUNT FARMER AND NUCLEAR ENGINEER)


“HUMBLE” CARTER: WALKING TO THE INAUGURATION


THE SWEATER, THE FIRESIDE CHATS, WORE JEANS


  • CARTER:

  • ENERGY CRISIS: "MEOW" – THE MORAL EQUIVALENT OF WAR

  • DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY, 1977

  • national energy act, 1978

  • DEREGULATION OF OIL PRICES, TAX SUBSIDIES (ENERGY POLICY ACT)

  • 1979 – WINDFALL oil PROFITS TAX (excise tax)

  • surface coal mining and reclamation act.

  • Opposition to nuclear energy


  • Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 (CERCLA) -- superfund

  • deregulation of TRANSPORTATION RATES (STAGGERS RAIL ACT, 1979, MOTOR CARRIER ACT, 1980)

  • WORSE INFLATION – in 1979 FED under paulvolcker IMPOSED DOUBLE-DIGIT INTEREST RATES ( SLOWDOWN but controlled inflation during reagan era)

  • RECESSION, 1978

  • PANAMA CANAL TREATY, 1978

  • IRANIAN REVOLUTION, 1979


  • 1979: “THE MALAISE SPEECH” – phd 29-9. american identity! Carter said nation was strong militarily and economically, but a major threat was:

  • “crisis of confidence” and of “national will” – “loss of unity of purpose of our nation”

  • “erosion of our confidence in the future” -- most people thought future would be worse than present, didn’t bother to vote


  • “In a nation that was proud of hard work, strong families, close-knit communities, and our faith in God, too many of us now tend to worship self-indulgence and consumption. Human identity is no longer defined by what one does, but by what one owns. But we've discovered that owning things and consuming things does not satisfy our longing for meaning.”


  • carter’s proposed solution?

  • “have faith” – pull together.

  • Save energy:

  • Use carpools, turn down thermostat, don’t take unnecessary trips, etc.


  • HOSTAGE CRISIS AND BOTCHED RESCUE ATTEMPT, 1980


National organization for the reform of marijuana laws, 1970 - present

Illegal drugs, especially marijuana, remained very popular AND MOSTLY TOLERATED in the 1970s (ACROSS AGE AND SOCIAL LINE) BUT BY END OF DECADE MORE AMERICANS (≈ 70% TOLD POLLSTERS THAT DRUGS WERE A PROBLEM IN SOCIETY


PAST DRUG USE, YOUNG ADULTS 18-25, 1974 – 1993 (WHAT PEOPLE WILL ADMIT!)


RONALD REAGAN: MOVIE ACTOR, TV STAR AND GOVERNOR OF CALIFORNIA


Election of 1980: ronaldreagan, georgeh.w. bush, 50.7% of popular vote, carter/ mondale 41%


RONALD REAGAN: MOVIE ACTOR, TV STAR AND GOVERNOR OF CALIFORNIA


  • ELECTION OF 1980

  • REAGAN POSITIONS:

  • ECONOMY:

  • "SUPPLY-SIDE" ECONOMICS – CUT TAXES  STIMULATE BUSINESS AND EFFECTS WOULD "TRICKLE-DOWN" TO CREATE JOBS AND PROSPERITY FOR EVERYONE

  • DISMANTLE GREAT SOCIETY, MORE POWER TO STATES ("NEW FEDERALISM") AND BALANCE BUDGET

  • IRAN HOSTAGE CRISIS: GET THEM FREED

  • FOREIGN POLICY: INCREASE MILITARY AGAINST "EVIL EMPIRE"


  • WOMEN'S RIGHTS:

  • OPPOSED ABORTION (ABOUT WHICH PRESIDENTS CAN DO NOTHING

  • NEITHER PRESIDENTS NOR MEMBERS OF CONGRESS NOR STATE POLITICIANS CAN BAN ABORTION -- WHY DO THEY ALWAYS HAVE TO TAKE POSITIONS ON IT IN CAMPAIGNS?

  • PROMISED TO APPOINT WOMAN SUPREME COURT JUSTICE

  • SCHOOL PRAYER: SUPPORTED IT – SAME QUESTION AS ABOUT ABORTION!


Morning in america?


IDENTIFY AND ANALYZE THE POLITICAL, SOCIAL, ECONOMIC AND DEMOGRAPHIC, FACTORS LEADING TO THE "CONSERVATIVE REVOLUTION" OF 1980.

GO TO THE BOARD AND WRITE THE REASONS!


SEVENTIES POP CULTURE -- MUSIC


70s MUSIC – DISCO = DANCE MUSIC.

Dancing very popular (compare great depression)

The bee gees – "stayin' alive," "more than a woman"

Thelma houston, "don't leave me this waY"


BIGGEST ROCK STAR OF 70s:

THE BOSS

BRUCE SPRINSTEEN

“BORN TO RUN”

LISTEN TO LYRICS – THEY’RE GLOOMY, REFLECT MALAISE OF THE PERIOD


COUNTRY ROCK – REFLECTS INCREASES INFLUENCE OF THE SUN BELT

THE EAGLES

MOST POPULAR EVEN THOUGH THEY ARE UNORIGINAL AND SUCK

“TAKE IT TO THE LIMIT”


HEAVY METAL – LED ZEPPELIN


New wave (counter-cultural) included the talking heads

And laurieanderson.

"o superman"


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