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Two tasks. Task One: Motivation and language strategy use Task Two: Plan an SBI lesson. Motivation & strategy use. WEN, Qiufang The National Research Center for Foreign Language Education, BFSU. Topics to be addressed . The relation between motivation and strategy use

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Two tasks

Two tasks

Task One: Motivation and language strategy use

Task Two: Plan an SBI lesson


Motivation strategy use

Motivation & strategy use

WEN, Qiufang

The National Research Center for Foreign Language Education, BFSU


Topics to be addressed
Topics to be addressed

  • The relation between motivation and strategy use

  • Major L2 motivation theories

  • Dörneyei’s process model of L2 motivation

  • Dörneyei’s motivational framework

  • Student demotivation


Topic one
Topic One

  • The relation between motivation and strategy use


Common assumptions
Common assumptions

  • The autonomous learners must be motivated learners.

  • Good language strategy users must be motivated learners


Research findings
Research findings

  • Motivation is a precondition for language strategy use.

  • Good strategy use may enhance motivation


Topics to be addressed today
Topics to be addressed today

  • The relation between motivation and strategy use

  • Major L2 motivation theories

  • Dörneyei’s process model of L2 motivation

  • Dörneyei’s motivational framework

  • Student demotivation


Major l2 motivation theories
Major L2 motivation theories

  • Gardner’s theory

  • Dörneyei’s theory


The meaning of motivation
The meaning of ‘motivation

  • Concerns the direction and magnitude of human behavior

  • Why people decide to do something

  • How long they are willing to sustain the activity

  • How hard they are going to pursue it


Gardner s motivation theory 1972
Gardner’s motivation theory (1972)

  • Motivational intensity

  • Desire to learn the language

  • Attitudes towards learning the language

  • Attitude/Motivation Test Battery


Two types of motivation
Two types of motivation

  • Integrative motivation

  • Instrumental motivation


D rneyei s process model of l2 motivation 2000
Dörneyei’s process model of L2 motivation (2000)

  • Action sequence

  • Motivational influence


Advantages
Advantages

  • Dynamic

  • Closely link with language teaching classroom


Topics to be addressed today1
Topics to be addressed today

  • The relation between motivation and strategy use

  • Motivation theories

  • Dörneyei’s process model of L2 motivation

  • Dörneyei’s motivational framework

  • Student demotivation


Topic three
Topic Three

Dörneyei’s process model of L2 motivation


Action sequence
Action sequence

  • Preactional phase

  • Action phase

  • Postactional phase


I preactional phase
I. Preactional phase

  • Choice motivation that precedes the launching of action

    • Goal setting

    • Intention formation

    • The initiation of intention enactment


Goal setting
Goal setting

  • Wishes & hopes

  • Desires

  • Opportunities


Intention formation
Intention formation

  • Intention

  • Commitment

  • A manageable action plan

    • Action schemata

    • The time frame


The initiation of intention enactment
The initiation of intention enactment

  • Two necessary conditions

    • Necessary means and resources

    • The start condition


Ii actional phase
II. Actional phase

  • Subtask generation & implementation

  • A complex ongoing appraisal process

  • The application of a variety of action control mechanisms


Iii postactional phase
III. Postactional phase

  • Causal attributions

  • Internal standards & the repertoire of action-specific strategies


Motivational influences on the different action phases
Motivational influences on the different action phases

  • Motivational influences on

    • Goal setting

    • Intention formation

    • The initiation of intention enactment

    • Actions

    • Postactional evaluation


Topics to be addressed today2
Topics to be addressed today

  • The relation between motivation and strategy use

  • Motivation theories

  • Dörneyei’s process model of L2 motivation

  • Dörneyei’s motivational framework

  • Student demotivation


Topic four
Topic Four

  • Dörnyei’s motivational framework

  • Call for education-friendly motivation research


D rnyei s motivational framework
Dörnyei’s motivational framework

  • Language level

  • Learner level

  • Learning situation level

    (Dörnyei, 1994)


Why?

  • Design a comprehensive construct

  • Synthesise various lines of research


Advantage 1
Advantage (1)

  • Three levels coincide with the three basic constituents of the L2 learning process

    • The target language

    • The language learner

    • The language-learning process


Advantage 2
Advantage (2)

  • Reflect three different aspects of language:

    • The social dimension

    • The personal dimension

    • The educational subject-matter dimension


Language level
Language level

  • Integrative motivational subsystem

  • instrumental motivational subsystem


Learner level
Learner level

  • Need for achievement

  • Self-confidence

    • Language use anxiety

    • Perceived L2 competence

    • Causal attribution


Learning situation level
Learning situation level

  • Course-specific motivational components

  • Teacher-specific motivational components

  • Group-specific components


Course specific motivational components
Course-specific motivational components

  • Interest (in the course)

  • Relevance (of the course to one’s needs)

  • Expectancy (of success)

  • Satisfaction (one has in the outcome)


Teacher specific motivational components
Teacher-specific motivational components

  • Affliative motive (to please the teacher)

  • Authority type (controlling vs. autonomy supporting)

  • Direct socialization of motivation

    • Modeling

    • Task presentation

    • Feedback


Group specific components
Group-specific components

  • Goal-orientedness

  • Norm and reward system

  • Group cohesiveness

  • Classroom goal structure (cooperative, competitive or individualistic)


How to motivate the students
How to motivate the students?

  • Creating the basic motivational conditions

  • Generating student motivation

  • Maintaining and protecting motivation

  • Encouraging positive self-evaluation


Creating the basic motivational conditions
Creating the basic motivational conditions

  • Appropriate teacher behaviors & a good relation with the students

  • A pleasant and supportive classroom atmosphere

  • A cohesive learner group with appropriate group norms


Appropriate teacher behaviors a good relation with the students
Appropriate teacher behaviors & a good relation with the students

  • Socializing and shaping the motivation of the students

    • Personal characteristics

    • Verbal & non-verbal ‘immediacy’ behavior

    • Active motivational socializing behavior

    • Classroom management practices


A pleasant and supportive classroom atmosphere
A pleasant and supportive classroom atmosphere students

  • Having ample opportunities to learn

  • Steady encouragement

  • No humiliation when they make mistakes


A cohesive learner group with appropriate group norms
A cohesive learner group with appropriate group norms students

  • Developing norm system that governs group behavior

    • Having an explicit norm building procedure

    • Discussing it in the whole group

    • Having a mutually accepted set of ‘class values’

    • Specifying the consequences for violation


Generating student motivation
Generating student motivation students

  • Enhancing the learners’ language-related values and attitudes

  • Making the curriculum relevant for the learners

  • Creating realistic learner beliefs


Enhancing the learners language related values and attitudes
Enhancing the learners’ language-related values and attitudes

  • The intrinsic value of L2 learning

    • Arouse the students’ curiosity and attention

    • Arouse the general interest in ‘foreignness’ and foreign languages

  • The extrinsic value of L2 learning

    • Reiterate the role the L2 plays in the world & its potential usefulness


Making the curriculum relevant for the learners
Making the curriculum relevant for the learners attitudes

  • Find out the students’ goals and the topics they want to learn

  • Build these into the curriculum as much as possible


Creating realistic learner beliefs
Creating realistic learner beliefs attitudes

  • Rectify unrealistic beliefs about how much progress to expect

  • Sort out some far-fetched expectations

  • Get rid of the preconceived notions and prejudices


Maintaining and protecting motivation
Maintaining and protecting motivation attitudes

  • Setting ‘proximal subgoals’

  • Improving the quality of the learning experience

  • Increasing the learner’s self-confidence

  • Foster learner autonomy


Setting proximal subgoals
Setting ‘proximal subgoals attitudes’

  • Goals clear and specific

  • Goals challenging but not far beyond their abilities

  • Providing feedback increasing students’ self-efficacy


Improving the quality of the learning experience
Improving the quality of the learning experience attitudes

  • Increasing the intrinsic enjoyment of participating in learning tasks

  • Enhancing the learners’ social image


Increasing the learners self confidence
Increasing the learners self-confidence attitudes

  • Foster the belief that the students’ competence is changeable and controllable

  • Emphasize what learners can do rather than cannot do

  • Give frequent verbal encouragement

  • Reduce classroom anxiety


Topics to be addressed today3
Topics to be addressed today attitudes

  • The relation between motivation and strategy use

  • Motivation theories

  • Dörneyei’s process model of L2 motivation

  • Dörneyei’s motivational framework

  • Student demotivation


Iv student demotivation
IV. Student demotivation attitudes

  • What is demotivation?

    • Various negative influences that cancel out existing motivation(p.142)

    • A demotivated learner

    • A demotive


Key terms
Key terms attitudes

  • Motivation

  • Amotivation

  • Demotivaton


Negative influences 1
Negative influences (1) attitudes

  • Dissatisfacion with grading and assignments

  • The teacher being boring, unorganized and unprepared


Negative influences 2
Negative influences(2) attitudes

  • The inferior organization of the teaching material

  • The teacher being unapproachable, self-centered, biased, insulting


Oxford s study 1998
Oxford attitudes’s study(1998)

  • Subjects

    • 250 American students

  • Instrument

    • Essay writing

  • Data analysis

    • Content analysis


Essay topics
Essay topics attitudes

  • Learning experiences over a period of five years

  • Describe a situation in which you experienced conflict with your teacher

  • Talk about a classroom in which you felt uncomfortable


Findings
Findings attitudes

  • The teacher’s personal relationship with the students

  • The teacher’s attitude towards the course or the material

  • Style conflicts between teachers and students

  • The nature of the classroom activities


Teacher motivation
Teacher motivation attitudes

  • Very little research on teacher motivation

  • The teacher’s level of enthusiasm and commitment



Planning an sbi lesson1
Planning an SBI Lesson attitudes

  • Course description

  • Target students

  • General objectives

  • Teaching procedures

    .



Implementing your lesson plan
Implementing your lesson plan attitudes

  • Don’t cover the whole cycle of strategy training (before-, during- and after-)

  • Select one cluster of strategies which are most related to your teaching content: MCA as one unit (Ideal)

  • Select one phase of your teaching (Don’t use the whole lesson for strategy training.)


Strategy based activities
Strategy-based activities attitudes

  • Strategy-based instruction: A teacher-training manual

    • Awareness-raising activities

      • Get the declarative knowledge

    • Strategy training activities:

      • Practice for the purpose of changing the declarative knowledge to the procedural knowledge

    • Strategy-practice activities

      • Procedural knowledge


Strategy training activities
Strategy-training activities attitudes

  • Precision

  • Scale 0-5

    • Do not see this word before.

    • I see this word before but don’t remember it’s meaning.

    • I know it’s meaning but not 100% sure.

    • I know it’s meaning.

    • I can use the word in a sentence.

0

5


Strategy training activity
Strategy-training activity attitudes

  • Ask the students to measure their level of vocabulary knowledge of each of new word

  • Divide the words into three categories

    • Level 5

      • Learn to use it in speaking and writing

    • Level 4

      • Learn to use it in listening and reading

    • Level 3

      • Get familiar with them


Strategy practice activity
Strategy-practice activity attitudes

  • Ask the students to accomplish such a task to make sure that the students do it frequently

    • Put the new words into three categories


Tomorrow arrangement
Tomorrow arrangement attitudes

  • 8:00-9:00 Lecture

  • Six classes will work in different classrooms

    • Class one: Multi-media hall

    • Class two-six in small class rooms

    • The tutor will show you where is the classroom after today’s class.


Morning
Morning attitudes

  • 8:00-9:00 Strategy training models (lecture)

  • 9:20-11:30 Group teaching in a small class (4 members) and vote for the best one to represent each class

    • 10 minutes for each group

    • Team teaching

    • The other members play the role of student


Tomorrow arrangement1
Tomorrow arrangement attitudes

  • Afternoon

  • 2:00-5:00

    • Six SBI lessons (20 minutes each lesson)

      • Teachers and students

    • Which class is going to teach first?

    • Tutors form a judge panel to decide first-prize winners, second-prize winners and third-prize winners


Texts for teaching
Texts for teaching attitudes

  • Class One and Class Two

    • “Say Yes”

  • Class Three and Class Four

    • “Half a day”

  • Class Five and Six

    • “The battle again Aid”



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