European colonisations in the americas
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European Colonisations in the Americas. Major phases of colonisation 16c: Spanish and Portuguese 17c: Dutch, French, English 18c: Russian. Marco Polo and Ibn Battuta. Genesis: The Search for the Indies Europeans in Asia: the spice routes Travels of Niccolo and Matteo Polo, 1256

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European Colonisations in the Americas

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European colonisations in the americas

European Colonisations in the Americas

Major phases of colonisation

  • 16c: Spanish and Portuguese

  • 17c: Dutch, French, English

  • 18c: Russian


Marco polo and ibn battuta

Marco Polo and Ibn Battuta

  • Genesis: The Search for the Indies

  • Europeans in Asia: the spice routes

  • Travels of Niccolo and Matteo Polo, 1256

  • Marco Polo, 1275

  • Closure of land routes in 14c: Black Death; end of Tartar empire; conversion of Ottoman Turks


Europeans in africa

Europeans in Africa

  • Portuguese explorations in 15c:

  • myth of Prester John

  • gold and slaves;

  • conquest in North Africa)


Prester john

Prester John


Exploration into the atlantic

Exploration into the Atlantic

  • Portugal and Castille (Azores, Madeira, Canary Islands)

  • Why Spanish and Portuguese Expansion?

  • Westward route to the Indies: the voyages of Columbus


Spain and america

Spain and America

  • Columbus’s ‘Discovery of America’

  • Columbus’s Aims

  • Columbus’s Ideas about the Indies

  • First Settlements: Hispaniola and Cuba

  • Role of the Spanish Crown

  • Significance of Spanish settlements in Caribbean

  • Impact on ‘Indians’


The nina

The Nina


Cantino map 1503

Cantino map, 1503


Explorations and discoveries on the american continents

Explorations and discoveries on the American continents

  • Expeditions in the Caribbean and circum-Caribbean

  • Towards the Pacific and South America

  • Towards Mexico: the Yucatán Peninsula and beyond

  • Impulses behind exploration

  • Conquest of Aztecs, 1519-21

  • Conquest of Incas, 1533-36


Spaniards and settlement

Spaniards and settlement

  • Organisation of the conquering bands

  • Social composition: who were the ‘conquistadores’?

  • Motives of conquistadores

  • Role of religion

  • Connections with Reconquista in Spain?


Preconquest america

Preconquest America


Conquest of mexico

Conquest of Mexico

  • Aztec Civilisation: Strengths and Weaknesses.

  • Spanish Encounter with Mexicans, 1519

  • Victory at Tenochtitlan, 1521

  • Establishment of Spanish Dominance

  • The conundrum of conquest: explanations


Native american responses to european contact

Native American responses to European contact

  • Why were the Aztec and Inca empires vulnerable to Spanish conquest?

  • Technology

  • Disease

  • Cultural differences

  • Political divisions among native peoples


The portuguese in america

The Portuguese in America

  • Discovery of the ‘land of the true cross’: Cabral (1500)

  • Portuguese and Indians: brasil wood; Indian enslavement; sugar.

  • Differences between Spanish and Portuguese settlements

  • Why Portuguese neglect of America in first half of 16c?


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