Week 4 composition of cells
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WEEK 4: Composition of Cells. LEARNING OUTCOMES By the end of this week, you should be able to: Develop a knowledge and understanding of the composition of cells.

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WEEK 4: Composition of Cells

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Week 4 composition of cells

WEEK 4: Composition of Cells

LEARNING OUTCOMES

By the end of this week, you should be able to:

  • Develop a knowledge and understanding of the composition of cells.

  • Describe the major groups of organic and inorganic substances including carbohydrates, proteins, lipids, nucleic acids, water, minerals, vitamins.

  • Describe the general role of these substances in cell structure and function.


Chapter 3 glossary

Chapter 3 Glossary

  • Metabolism

  • Catabolism

  • Anabolism

  • Water

  • Cohesive

  • Hydrogen bonds

  • Hydrophilic

  • Hydrophobic

  • Monomers

  • Polymers

  • Carbohydrates

  • Monosaccharide

  • Polysaccharide

  • Lipids

  • Trigylcerides

  • Phospholipids

  • Nucleic acids – DNA, RNA

  • Proteins

  • Enzymes

  • Minerals

  • Vitamins


Organic compounds

Carbon

Hydrogen

Nitrogen

Oxygen

Sulfur

Organic Compounds

  • Organic compounds all contain the element carbon.

  • They usually also contain hydrogen and oxygen in varying quantities.

  • They are often large molecules (polymers), and are made of smaller sub-units (monomers) bonded together in various ways.

  • They all contain the elements C (______), H (________) and O (_______).

  • Nitrogen (N) and sulphur (S) are common in amino acids and nucleotides.

carbon

hydrogen

oxygen


Organic compounds1

Organic Compounds


Water

Water

solvent

  • Water is the predominant ______ in living organisms.

  • Water molecules are highly _______.

  • Draw and label a water molecule.

  • Add a couple more water molecules to your diagram and illustrate how they stick together.

cohesive


Carbohydrates

Carbohydrates

  • The different properties of carbohydrates relate to the way the glucose monomers have been linked together.

  • Copy table 3.3 from page 56 in your textbook.


Proteins

Proteins

  • Proteins contain nitrogen as well as C, H and O.

  • There are 20 naturally occurring amino acids which make up the many different types of proteins.

  • Amino acids join together with a peptide bond.

  • Two amino acids bonded together are called a dipeptide.

  • More than two amino acids bonded together are called polypeptides.

  • Draw a polypeptide.

  • Label a peptide bond and amino acid monomer.


Lipids

Lipids

  • Important in animals as they contain about twice as much energy as polysaccharides.

  • Hydrophobic.

  • Triglycerides are a common form – they have one glycerol molecule and three fatty acid tails.

  • Phospholipids are the main constituent of plasma membranes. They have a phosphate group attached to the glycerol and two fatty acid tails.


Biological roles of lipids

Biological Roles of Lipids

Mitochondrion (false color TEM)

Lipids are concentrated sources of energy and can be broken down (through fatty acid oxidation in the mitochondria) to provide fuel for aerobic respiration

Waxes and oils, when secreted on to surfaces provide waterproofing in plants and animals.

Phospholipids form the structural framework of cellular membranes, e.g. the plasma membrane (above).

Fat absorbs shocks. Organs that are prone to bumps and shocks (e.g. kidneys) are cushioned with a relatively thick layer of fat.


Biological roles of lipids1

Biological Roles of Lipids

The white fat tissue (arrows) is visible in this ox kidney

Fat absorbs shocks. Organs that are prone to bumps and shocks (e.g. kidneys) are cushioned with a relatively thick layer of fat.

Lipids are a source of metabolic water. During respiration, stored lipids are metabolized for energy, producing water and carbon dioxide.

Stored lipids provide insulation in extreme environments. Increased body fat levels in winter reduce heat losses to the environment.


Nucleic acids

Nucleic Acids

  • Draw Figure 3.12 from page 59 of your textbook.

  • Label the parts.

  • Write down three differences between DNA and RNA.


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