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2/18 & 2/19 . Absolute LAST DAY FOR 20 TH CENTURY INTERNAL ASSESSMENT ~ Tomorrow 2/19 2 HARD COPIES HANDED TO ME! 1 COPY SUBMITTED VIA EMAIL TO ME! THAT’S IT!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! On that note you will have a quiz Thursday 2/20 on Origins of the Cold War . Icebreaker!!!.

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2/18 & 2/19

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2/18 & 2/19

  • Absolute LAST DAY FOR 20TH CENTURY INTERNAL ASSESSMENT ~ Tomorrow 2/19

  • 2 HARD COPIES HANDED TO ME!

  • 1 COPY SUBMITTED VIA EMAIL TO ME!

  • THAT’S IT!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!

  • On that note you will have a quiz Thursday 2/20 on Origins of the Cold War


Icebreaker

Icebreaker!!!

1) How did the Cold War start?

2) Two military & political organizations in response to Cold War? Who were the heads?

3) Describe the United Nations. How was it organized?

4) Truman Doctrine-

5) Marshall Plan-

6) US policy toward communism-

7) Why did US, Britain, France, & Soviet Union cooperate during WWII?


Icebreaker1

Icebreaker

  • Bolshevik Revolution, “Great Contest,” Arms Race, Propaganda, Russian Expansion, US Imperialism, West - West Conflict Theory, North South Divide, Superpower Theory

  • NATO vs. Warsaw Pact (Satellite Nations)

  • International Peacekeeping Organization – Security Council (US, Britain, France, SU, China) & General Assembly

  • Military & Economic Aid - Containment

  • Economic Aid

  • Containment

  • Saw Hitler and Nazi Germany as the greater evil…Stalin “Socialism in one country”


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Iron Curtain Cartoon


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Iron Curtain

From Stettin in the Balkans, to Trieste in the Adriatic, an iron curtain has descended across the Continent. Behind that line lies the ancient capitals of Central and Eastern Europe. -- Sir Winston Churchill, 1946


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Buffer between East and West.

Eastern Europe became Soviet satellite nations.

Pro-Soviet.

These people were no longer free.

  • Buffer States Satellite States


Characteristics of the first cold war

Characteristics of the first Cold War

1. Military build-up, particularly of the nuclear type on both sides

2. Intense propaganda campaigns between two camps, try to denigrate each other

3. No successful negotiations between the USA and USSR on issues of mutual concern in Europe or in the rest of the world (iron curtain)

4. Conflict between capitalism and communism found expression in third world situations

5. Tightening of controls within the capitalist and communist camps

6. East-West confrontation came to dominate or condition other conflicts


Issues of first cold war

Issues of First Cold War

  • Poland’s future

  • the question of Germany

  • spheres of influence

  • military insecurity


Poland s future

Poland’s future

Disputes over Yalta

Stalin’s fears/concerns: no invasion, resources needed, rebuilding requires control, fear of capitalist encirclement, inevitability of war with capitalists, impossibility of disarmament

- Communist manipulation of elections ensured a communist victory


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What to do with Germany?

  • At the Potsdam Conference in 1945, it was decided by the four victorious powers of World War II - Great Britain, France, the Soviet Union, and the United States of America that the territory of the former German Empire as defined by the borders of 1937 was to be divided into four zones of occupation.

http://www.dhm.de/ENGLISH/ausstellungen/breakthrough/S1.htm


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Division of Germany and Berlin


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Germany-Two Countries - 1949

  • The Federal Republic of Germany, or West Germany, was formally created in September 1949. October 7th 1949 The German Democratic Republic, East Germany was set up by the Soviets


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Two Capitols: Bonn and Berlin


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Divided Berlin


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Berlin-Deep in Soviet Germany


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Berlin Blockade: 24 June 1948 -12 May 1949

  • The three western sections of Germany and Berlin and created a West German government and announced a new currency.

  • Stalin responded on June 24, 1948 by attempting to force the western allies out of Berlin altogether. He cut off rail and road access to the western side of the city and turned off electricity.


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Berlin Airlift Begins: June 25, 1948

  • The United States and Great Britain mounted a massive airlift to keep the western sectors supplied with the 5000 tons of food per day and fuel that the city needed…and chocolate for children!

Lt. Halvorsen dropping candy. He became known as the “candy bomber”.


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Berlin Airlift

277,264 flights and 1.5 million tons of aid.


Spheres of influence

Spheres of Influence

  • As early as February 1946, the USSR had been attempting to increase influence in ‘its’ zone or sphere of influence in E. Europe

  • Stalin was desperate to rebuild the SU war devastated economy

  • In response to the Truman Doctrine & Marshall Plan Soviet influence and control in E. Europe was stepped up resulting in increasingly communist – dominated governments in Poland, Hungary, Romania, and Albania


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Truman Doctrine: Background

  • Greek Government vs Greek Communists

  • Truman requested that Congress provide $400,000,000 worth of aid to both the Greek and Turks to stave off communism in the region

  • Truman argued that a Communist victory in the Greek Civil War would endanger the political stability of Turkey, which would undermine the political stability of the Middle East.

  • This could not be allowed in light of the region's immense strategic importance to U.S. national security.


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Truman Doctrine 1947

  • The United States was compelled to assist "free peoples" in their struggles against "totalitarian regimes" because the spread of authoritarianism would "undermine the foundations of international peace and hence the security of the United States."

  • The Truman Doctrine committed the United States to actively offering assistance to preserve the political integrity of democratic nations when such an offer was deemed to be in the best interest of the United States.


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Truman Doctrine: Legacy

  • In the words of the Truman Doctrine, it became "the policy of the United States to support free peoples who are resisting attempted subjugation by armed minorities or by outside pressures."The Truman Doctrine effectively reoriented U.S. foreign policy, away from withdrawal and isolation to one of possible intervention in far away conflicts.

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=wmQD_W8Pcxg&feature=PlayList&p=2287E59C541E7692&index=5


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Marshall Plan 1948: Rebuild War-torn Europe

  • “The U. S. should provide aid to all European nations that need it. This move is not against any country or doctrine, but against hunger, poverty, desperation, and chaos.” ~ George Marshall


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Marshall Plan: Legacy

  • A great humanitarian effort.

  • Secretary of State Marshall became the only military general ever to receive a Nobel Prize for peace.

  • The Marshall Plan also institutionalized and legitimized the concept of U.S. foreign aid programs, which have become a integral part of U.S. foreign policy.


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Marshall Plan Aid to Europe 1948-1952


Exit card

Exit Card

  • Describe 3 characteristics of the First Cold War:

  • What happened to Germany at the end of WWII?

  • What did the Marshall Plan accomplish?

  • What did the Truman Doctrine accomplish?


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