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Review typesetting terminology. Terminology. Loose line. abcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyz. Terminology. Tight line. abcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyz. Terminology. A. B. Tracking.

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Review typesetting terminology


  • Loose line



  • Tight line





  • Tracking

In typography, tracking, also called letter-spacing, refers to the amount of space between a group of letters to affect density in a line or block of text.


  • Widow

A paragraph-ending line that falls at the beginning of the following page/column, thus separated from the remainder of the text.

The Chicago Manual of Style


  • Orphan (1)

A paragraph-opening line that appears by itself at the bottom of a page/column.

The Chicago Manual of Style


  • Orphan (2)

A word, part of a word, or very short line that appears by itself at the end of a paragraph. Orphans result in too much white space between paragraphs or at the bottom of a page.

The Chicago Manual of Style


  • White space

White space, also known as negative space, is the term describing open space between design elements. Margins, leading, space between letters, words, paragraphs.


  • River

In typography, rivers, or rivers of white, are visually unattractive gaps appearing to run down a paragraph of text, due to an accidental alignment of spaces.


  • Out of register

An imperfect REGISTER, meaning that the two sides of a printed sheet do not back each other perfectly, or the impression is not in correct position in relation to the other matter already ruled or printed on the sheet.


  • Unbalanced column



Typesetting a Bible with Prince XML

Jim AlbrightWycliffe Bible Translators

My assignment

Create or extend a standard that will allow us to exchange Bibles in the process of translation that handles

  • multiple back translations (different languages),

  • translator and consultant notes, and

  • status of translation.

OXES based on OSIS

OXES (Open XML for Editing Scripture) was developed to add requested features.

OSIS focuses on the finished translation. OXES includes process information so in the future translators will know why a passage was translated the way it is.

OSIS is highly extensible. OXES is restrictive. All options are explicitly named.

Too many files to distribute

I have over 100 image files to include with the HTML documentation produced from the Relax NG schema.

Our son, Eric, suggested using Prince to produce one PDF file.

I looked at Prince PDF samples online

Prince PDF samples

Prince PDF samples

Prince PDF book

My OXES PDF documentation

Prince solved my problem

  • All the images are included in one PDF file that is easy to distribute

  • It seemed to handle book info well

  • So …

Since Prince can do books

Page size


Paragraph formatting

A Bible is a book –extra requirements

Chapter numbers

Verse numbers

Inline and stacking footnotes

And much more

Test OXES by printing Bible

To test that I had a complete specification I decided to transform a Bible into OXES and then to print using Prince XML.

My Prince output: 1 column



My Prince output: 2 column




Complete automatic typesetting for a Bible probably won’t happen.

Need to insert and place pictures

Need to do tracking

Typesetting with Princess

Show how to fix

Show what needs to be fixed

Show how to use Princess - live

Good but not good enough

Which is better A or B? Why?



Which is better A or B? Why?



How do we get “B”?

Use Princess.


Princess – tracking menu

Adobe Reader

Select text with mouse

Select tracking

Princess calls Prince

Prince success

Progress bar

Princess calls Prince

Prince success

Tracking in PDF

Interactive tracking

Interactive tracking

Interactive tracking

Interactive tracking

Interactive tracking

Fix other paragraph

Add pictures

Add picture of John the Baptist around MRK 1.4 to MRK 1.8.

Add picture of Jesus baptism around MRK 1.9 to MRK 1.12

Add 2 column picture of last supper aroundMRK 14.12 to MRK 14.26.

Page 2 with pictures inline

Page 2 no picture in text

To insert picture

Select anchor

Select picture and insert

Picture column top

Select anchor for second picture

Bad design - tombstone

Select picture

Picture column bottom

2 column picture

How do you get the PDF that you want?

  • CSS – Cascading Style Sheet

  • XML source text – Extensible Markup Language

  • Combine in PrinceXML to give you

  • PDF





border-bottom-width: 1pt;


padding: 0 0 6pt 0;

margin: 0 0 6pt 0;



<div class="introduction">

<p class="first" te="Paragraph" usfm="p">Èleèèna, Maria nètiMagdala, Maria dhuleohari (inaYakobis), dènge Salome, ra mate dailod'ocèna, ho èlelod'osabaj'a. Hekaralasihèlièihèumèngi, sèna ka bèlirèngulasipakose mi ngi'uYesus, madhutuad'adhèuYahudi. RopahariMigumadaeaaena, tèluralasiro'aYesus. Ètutaloraj'ara, tèlurapadhue, akurènguna, “Waa! Dai nèina, cee ka dhulolieelehadhuaaena, nètihèbaro'a? Èdhitèluti se, bisaboe, lulahadhuèènakapaibia!” </p>


Text editor





Hyphenation rules

Prince XML

Adobe Reader

Text editor






Hyphenation rules


Prince XML

Adobe Reader

Prince PDF Bible

Prince offers a free license for non-commercial use of Prince.

This license adds a small logo to the first page of generated PDF files.

Professional License

495 USD

Server License

3800 USD

Academic Server License

1900 USD

More info for Prince




  • Google: google Prince xml techtalk youtube

More info for Princess


Coming soon

1. Support graphite font tables for complex scripts - This should fix end of ayah problems.

2. Support optical alignment for neater margins.

3. Thai fonts

4. Allow footnotes to be formatted as inline boxes.

5. Add kashidas for Arabic justification.

6. Be able to flip picture so face goes opposite direction.

7. Rotate text so it slants uphill/downhill.

8. Make the invisblertlltr markers non printing.

9. Support for named flows as defined by CSS3 Generated Content for Paged Media.

10. Support CSS3 properties for control of justification.

11. Support CSS3 sidenotes.


1. Develop mechanism to combine identical page references for indexing.

2. Support the float property on the ::first-letter pseudo-element.

3. Support Arabic subtending marks, U+600 to U+603.

4. Add padding-inside / padding-outside and border-inside / border-outside properties for duplex page layouts.

5. Support vertical text layout.

6. Fix bug where multiple floats can overlap if they are pulled out of their containing block by negative margins.

Imagine sunset picture here

  • end

Questions about Prince XML

Michael Day at Prince XML responds to requests for improvements. They value user feedback.

Prince wants to do almost all possible printing with no human intervention.

Page continued


layout, type or pictures that extend beyond the trim marks on a page. Illustrations that spread to the edge of the paper without margins are referred to as 'bled off'.


a continuous decorative design or rule surrounding the matter on the page.


XML text

Cascading Style Sheet


probably only ones not needed

text line through

text line through color

text line through style

text overline

text overline color

text overline style

CSS handles lots of print needs


  • div.scriptureText{

  • columns:2;

  • column-gap:6pt;

  • column-fill: balance;

  • prince-hyphenate-patterns: url("../hyphen-nfa.txt") ;

  • hyphens: auto ;

  • hyphenate-before: 2;

  • hyphenate-after: 3;

  • hyphenate-lines: 1;

  • widows:2;

  • ophans:2;

  • }

Prince handles widows and orphans (definition #1)

The Chicago Manual of Style

Other possible problems

Rivers, Lakes




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