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ENERGY. 2 Systems TDN Calories. GROSS ENERGY. GROSS ENERGY Feces. GROSS ENERGY Feces DIGESTIBLE ENERGY. GROSS ENERGY Feces DIGESTIBLE ENERGY Urine & Gas. GROSS ENERGY Feces DIGESTIBLE ENERGY Urine & Gas METABOLIZABLE ENERGY. GROSS ENERGY Feces DIGESTIBLE ENERGY

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Energy

ENERGY

2 Systems

TDN

Calories




GROSS ENERGY

Feces

DIGESTIBLE ENERGY


GROSS ENERGY

Feces

DIGESTIBLE ENERGY

Urine & Gas


GROSS ENERGY

Feces

DIGESTIBLE ENERGY

Urine & Gas

METABOLIZABLE ENERGY


GROSS ENERGY

Feces

DIGESTIBLE ENERGY

Urine & Gas

METABOLIZABLE ENERGY

Heat increment


GROSS ENERGY

Feces

DIGESTIBLE ENERGY

Urine & Gas

METABOLIZABLE ENERGY

Heat increment

NET ENERGY


GROSS ENERGY

Feces

DIGESTIBLE ENERGY

Urine & Gas

METABOLIZABLE ENERGY

Heat increment

NET ENERGY

Maintenance Gain Reproduction Milk Production


  • Gross Energy includes all the energy in a feed.

    • It is not all available to the animal

    • It is determined by how much heat is liberated upon combustion.

  • Digestible Energy is how much energy does not end up in the feces.

    • Therefore it was absorbed.

    • It is not all used by the animal, some is lost.

  • Metabolizable Energy is what is left after accounting for energy in feces, urine and gasses.

    • It is still not all available for the animal to use.


Net energy
Net Energy

  • Is what is left after accounting for losses to feces, urine & gasses and heat increment.

    • Heat increment is energy lost in fermentation and in metabolic processes.

  • Net Energy is available for the animal to use.

  • It is not used with the same efficiency for all processes.




GROSS ENERGY for the energy content of feeds for each purpose.

Feces

DIGESTIBLE ENERGY

Urine & Gas

METABOLIZABLE ENERGY

Heat increment

NET ENERGY

Maintenance Gain Reproduction Milk Production


Determining caloric energy
Determining Caloric Energy for the energy content of feeds for each purpose.

  • Use Paar Adiabatic Bomb Calorimeter


Steps in determining calories
Steps in determining calories for the energy content of feeds for each purpose.

  • Prepare sample (grind, pellet, place in bomb)

  • Wire bomb and charge with Oxygen

  • Place in calorimeter in known amount of H2O

  • Measure initial temperature

  • Ignite

  • Measure final temperature


Calculations
Calculations for the energy content of feeds for each purpose.

  • 1 calorie = energy to raise 1 g H2O 1° C

  • 1000 cal = 1 Kcal

    • (In humans 1 Calorie = 1 Kcal, animal nutritionists don’t use Calorie vs calorie)

  • Temp rise X g H2O = calories in sample

  • Cal in sample X amount of feed = Cal in feed

    • same for feces


  • Calculate the total calories (or Kcal) (per day) eaten and excreted (in feces, urine).

  • Calculate DE, ME, Net E (must know the endogenous contribution in Kcal/Kg and %

    • For Kcal/Kg divide the Kcal of interest by Kg consumed

    • For %, divide the Kcal of interest by Kcal of feed consumed (times 100).


TDN excreted (in feces, urine).

  • Total Digestible Nutrients

    • Forget that, I consider it a misnomer

    • It is really:

  • An ENERGY INDEX on a carbohydrate equivalent basis

  • Calculated from proximate analysis


Calculating tdn
Calculating TDN excreted (in feces, urine).

  • % CP X Digestibility = x

  • % EE X 2.25 X Digestibility = x

  • % CF X Digestibility = x

  • % NFE X Digestibility = x

  • ------

  • SUM = TDN TDN


Example
Example excreted (in feces, urine).

  • Water 12

  • Nitrogen 2

  • Ether Extract 4

  • Crude Fiber 10

  • Ash 2

  • NFE


Example1
Example excreted (in feces, urine).

  • Water 12

  • Nitrogen 2 (2*6.25) 12.5

  • Ether Extract 4

  • Crude Fiber 10

  • Ash 2

  • NFE


Example2
Example excreted (in feces, urine).

  • Water 12

  • Nitrogen 2 (2*6.25) 12.5

  • Ether Extract 4

  • Crude Fiber 10

  • Ash 2

  • NFE 59.5


Example3
Example excreted (in feces, urine).

digestibility

  • Water 12

  • Nitrogen 2 (2*6.25) 12.5 .80

  • Ether Extract 4 .75

  • Crude Fiber 10 .40

  • Ash 2

  • NFE 59.5 .80


Example4
Example excreted (in feces, urine).

digestibility

  • Water 12

  • Nitrogen 2 (2*6.25) 12.5 .80 = 10

  • Ether Extract 4 * 2.25 * .75 =6.75

  • Crude Fiber 10 .40 = 4

  • Ash 2

  • NFE 59.5 .80 = 47.6

    • -----------------

  • TOTAL (TDN) 68.35


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