America and the great war
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America and the Great War . Modern America. Objectives. Analyze Wilson’s idealistic diplomacy and show the clash of ideals and reality in Mexico. Explain early U.S. reaction to World War I. Account for the entry of the United States into World War I.

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America and the great war

America and the Great War

Modern America


Objectives

Objectives

  • Analyze Wilson’s idealistic diplomacy and show the clash of ideals and reality in Mexico.

  • Explain early U.S. reaction to World War I.

  • Account for the entry of the United States into World War I.

  • Evaluate the status of civil liberties during World War I and during the Red Scare afterward.

  • Assess the process and product of peacemaking after World War I.

  • Explain the failure of the United States to ratify the peace treaty after World War I.

  • Describe the problems of reconversion from World War I to civilian life.


End of american isolation

EnD of American Isolation

  • 19th Century

    • Isolated from Europe and all of its imbroglios

    • Immigrants

  • 20th century

    • Industrial development and active World Trade

    • Steam powered ships and submarines that could easily reach US

    • Missionary (idealism) diplomacy


Wilson in foreign affairs

Wilson in Foreign Affairs

  • No background and no experience

  • America had a religious duty to advance democracy and moral progress

  • Idealistic or pious democracy

  • Secretary Bryan's “Cooling Off” Treaties

    • Arbitration treaties

    • Eradicate war

    • Submit troubles to arbitration panel

    • Have a year of cooling off period


Intervention in mexico

Intervention in Mexico

  • Profirio Diaz and military dictatorship

    • 1876-1910

    • Manipulation and coercion

  • Overthrow of Diaz

    • Francisco Madero candidate

    • Jailed by Diaz

    • Popular support called for a revolt that began the Mexican Revolution

  • General Victoriano Huerta ( La Cuaracha)

    • Assumed power and killed Madero

  • Non-recognition of the Huerta government

    • Legality of government

    • Immoral government

  • Help for opposition

    • Warships to Vera Cruz

    • Removal of embargo

  • U.S. soldiers arrested

    • Salute the American flag

    • Invasion at Vera Cruz

  • ABC Powers

  • Huerta flees Mexico

  • Constitutionalist Carranza


Francesco pancho villa

Francesco “Pancho” Villa

  • Early Life

  • Bandit to Revolutionary

  • Division del Norte

  • U.S. recognition of Carranza gov’t

    • Attack against Carranza’s men

    • Villa attack on Americans

      • 16 mining engineers

      • 17 Americans in New Mexico

  • Wilson mobilization of National Guard under Pershing

    • 11,000 men

  • Later life

    • Retired received general’s pension


Problems in the caribbean

Problems in the Caribbean

  • Protecting Democracy

    • Protecting fledging Republics

  • American occupation of Nicaragua, Haiti and Dominican Republic

  • Atoning for American Imperialism

  • Attempt to undo the ill feelings in Colombia prompted by TR acts

  • Purchase of Virgin Islands from Demark


Motives for war

Motives for War

  • Germany

    • Recently formed nation

    • Wanted to be more influential and amass a colonial empire

  • Austro-Hungary

    • New territorial acquisitions

    • Survive as an empire

  • France

    • Recovery eastern provides

    • Bitter and vengeful about the Franco-Prussian War

  • Russia

    • Territorial acquisition

    • Survive as an Empire; recover prestige

  • Great Britain

    • Naval arms race with Germany

    • Maintain its empire by stabilizing Europe


Europe and causes of world war i

Europe and Causes of World War I

  • First glance Europe was relatively peaceful

    • No general European War since Napoleon I

    • Material progress

    • Nations trade with one another

    • Travelers passed freely

    • Arts and industry flourished

  • Second glance, powder keg

    • Major Nations substantial arms industries

    • Programs of compulsory military services

      • Large forces quickly

    • Developed plans for war


Cause of war the balkans

Cause of War: The Balkans

  • Assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria and Wife Sophie

  • 28 June 1914

    • 2attempts of assassination

    • Attempted suicide

    • GavrilloPrincip, 20

    • Anti-Austro-Hungarian resistance, Black Hand

    • To young for death


The domino effect

The Domino Effect

  • Austria-Hungary declared War on Serbia

  • Russian bound by treaty mobilized army against Austria-Hungary

  • Germany allied with Austria-Hungary declared war on Russia

  • France bound by treaty to Russian, declared war on Germany by ext. Austria Hungary

  • GB bound by entente with France joined in the fray

  • Japan declared military alliance with Britain

  • American and Italy neutral

WAR!


Alliances

Alliances

  • Germany

  • Austro-Hungary

  • Italy (1915)

  • France

  • Great Britain

  • Russia

Triple Alliance or Central Powers

Triple Entente or Allied Powers


Fronts of the war

Fronts of the War


Dulce et decorum

Dulce Et Decorum….?

  • Dulce et Decorum est  Pro patria mori

  • Summer of 1914 about 6 million men marched to war

    • Home before the leaves fall

  • Volunteer enlistment high

  • Holiday to escape boredom

  • Grand Adventure

  • Spoiling for War


  • Unprecedented war

    Unprecedented war

    • Scope of fighting

      • Unlike any war before

        • Indifferent, impersonal, directionless

      • 61 million men

      • 9 million dead

      • 19 million wounded

      • 3 million widows/6million orphans

      • Psychological damage

        • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=RRv56gsqkzs

    • Military technology

      • Massive causalities

      • Widespread destruction

      • 2,533 men died on an average day at the Western Front


    Military innovations

    Military Innovations

    • Chemical

    • Tanks

    • Flame throwers

    • Land Mines

    • Machine guns

      • Hiram Maxim

      • Automatic weapon

    • Advance Artillery

      • French 75

        • 16 rounds/minute

    • Dreadnought Battleships

    • Backpack

    • Airplane

      • Reconnaissance

      • bombers


    Trench warfare

    Trench warfare


    Life in the trenches

    Life in the Trenches

    • 7’ x 6’

    • By 1915 4 million living in trenches

    • Disease and death

      • Typhus (Rats and Lice)

      • Influenza

    • Unsanitary conditions

    • Trench foot

    • Living slept next to the dead


    Initial u s response

    Initial U.S. response

    • Thankful form the Atlantic and freedom from entangling Alliance

    • Declaration of neutrality

      • “impartial in thought and action”

    • Attitudes of hyphenated Americans

      • 8 Million German

      • 4 million Irish

    • Views of other Americans

      • Support of Britain and Allies

    • Extension of economic credit to the Allies

      • $2 billion to Allies

      • $27 million to Germany


    Problems of neutrality

    Problems of neutrality

    • “Freedom of the seas”

      • Sea trade important

    • British declaration of the North Sea war zone

      • Mines

      • Neutrals submit to searches

    • Seizure of ships carrying goods to Germany

    • Blacklisted American Companies that trade w/Germany

    • Censor of mail

    • American Protest

    • German use of submarines

      • unrestricted submarine warfare

      • British Isle war zone

      • Any ship entering would be destroyed


    Sinking of the lusitania

    Sinking of the Lusitania

    • 128 Americans lost

    • U.S. protests

    • Bryan's resignation

    • Arabic pledge

      • Liners would not be sunk by German subs w/o warning

    • House's futile mediation efforts

      • Americans should not travel on armed belligerent vessels

    • Sussex pledge

      • U-boats would not target merchant and passenger ships


    Debate over preparedness

    Debate over preparedness

    • Demands for stronger army and navy

    • Antiwar advocates

      • Traditionally opposed to standing armies

      • Opposed by Progressives and others from South and West

    • National Defense Act of 1916

      • Expansion of army from 90,000 to 175,000

        • Segregated military

      • Expanded National guard

      • Provided federal funds for summer training camps

    • Move for a stronger navy

      • Less opposition than army

      • Between $500 million and $600 million 3-year expansion program

    • Efforts to obtain revenue for preparedness

      • Increase of income tax


    Election of 1916

    Election of 1916

    • Republicans nominated

      • Justices Charles Hughes

      • TR hoped to regain majority

        • Defection remembered

        • Bellicose natured scared many

    • Progressive party disbanded

      • Gathered in Chicago

      • Endorsed Hughes

    • Democratic program

      • Wilson

      • “he kept us out of the war”

      • “peace and progressivism”

    • Results of the election

      • Narrow win


    Wilson and mediation

    Wilson and Mediation

    • Wilson's effort to mediate

      • Notes to belligerents to each state its war aims

      • Germans (state aims at neutral site)

      • Allies ( reparations and partition of Austro-Hungarian and Ottoman Empire)

    • Wilson's assertion of terms of peace

      • “peace w/o victory; “peace among equal”

      • Peace based upon principals of democratic government, freedom of the seas disarmament, international league of peace


    Toward war

    Toward War

    • Germany & unrestricted submarine warfare

    • Diplomatic break with Germany

      • 3 Feb 1917

      • Efforts to arm U.S. merchant ships

    • Zimmerman telegram

      • British intercepted and decoded a telegram message from Minister Zimmeran to Mexican Ambassador

      • Offer an alliance and financial aid to Mexico in case of war b/t US and Germany

      • In return for action Mexico could revered lost territory in Texas, New Mexico and Arizona

    • Russian Revolution

      • Fighting for democracy

    • Bolshevik sued for a separate peace with Germany

      • Trouble for the western front


    U s entry into the war

    U.S. entry into the war

    • Loss of U.S. vessels

      • 17 March U-boat sank five US merchant vessels

    • Declaration of war

      • 6 April 1917


    Mobilizing a nation

    Mobilizing a nation

    • Army Appropriation Act

      • Council of National Defense

        • Created wartime agencies

    • Lever Food and Fuel Control Act

      • Raise agriculture production while reduced civilian use of foodstuffs

        • Victory gardens

        • Meatless Tuesday

    • War Industries Board

      • Allied government submit there needs to the board

      • Set priorities planned production

      • Allocate raw materials

      • Fix Prices

      • Construction of New Plants


    Early u s role

    Early U.S. role

    • Limited expectations from the United States

    • Contributions to naval strategy

      • Convoy system and decrease in shipping losses

      • Minefield across the North Sea limiting u-boat access

    • Financial assistance to the Allies

      • Liberty Loan Act

        • $5billion to national debt in “liberty bonds”

        • $3 billion could be lent to the Allied Powers

    • First contingents of troops

      • 26 June 1917 14,500 men embarked on French Coast

      • Under leadership of General Pershing

      • “Lafayette, We Are Here”

      • Struggle with Allies


    New labor sources

    New labor sources

    • African Americans

      • Great Migration

        • 400,000 blacks

      • Racial conflicts

    • Women


    War propaganda

    War propaganda

    • Committee on Public Information

    • Sell Americans the War

    • George Creel

      • 150,000 workforce

      • Uncle Sam photo

    • Conveyed Aims of Allies and the Enemy

    • Beast of Berlin


    Support of the war

    Support of The War

    • Popular disdain for all things German

      • Liberty Cabbage

      • Bach and Beethoven

      • German language courses dropped

    • Espionage and Sedition Acts

      • Espionage Act of 1917 penalty of 20 years and $20,000:

        • giving aid to enemy

        • Insubordination, disloyalty, refusal of duty to the armed services, and interfering with War effort

      • Sedition Act of 1918

        • Interfere in the sale of wary bonds

        • Say , write or publish anything against America

    • Prosecutions

      • 1,000 convictions

      • Eugene V. Debs

  • Schenck v. United States

    • Anti-draft leaflets among Armed Forces

    • Free speech does not apply to where there is a “clear and present danger”


  • Americans in the war

    Americans In the War

    • Allies on defensive through 1917

      • Token American forces

    • Italian line collapsed and Austrians take over

    • German offensive after Russian withdrawal

      • Broke through British and French lines

      • Established a 40 mile Front

    • Significant U.S. participation in the war

      • Increase moral

      • Reversed German offensive at 2nd Battle of the Marne and Amiens Offensive

      • Meuse-Argonne Offensive

        • 1.2 million American troops


    Stg alvin york

    Stg. Alvin York

    • Hell Raiser from TN

      • Life change at revival

    • Conscientious objector

    • Action occurred during the U.S.-led portion of the Meuse Argonne Offensive

    • Medal of Honor for leading an attack on a German Machine gun nest,

      • taking 32 machine guns

      • killing 28 German soldiers and

      • capturing 132 others.

    • Other medals

    • French Légion d'honneur

    • French Croix de guerrewith Palm

    • ItalianCroce di Guerra


    Fourteen points

    Fourteen Points

    • Peace plan of Wilson, 1918

      • No Selfish aims

      • Open Diplomacy

      • Freedom of the Seas

      • Removal of Trade Barriers

      • Reduction in Armaments

      • impartial adjustment of colonial claims

      • Central Powers to evacuate occupied land

      • Independent Poland

      • League of Nations

    • Keep Russia involved

    • Nobel Cause

    • Drive a wedge in the Central Power Alliance


    November 11 1918

    November 11, 1918

    • German Allies drop out of the war

    • Kaiser abdicated

      • German Republic

    • Armistice

      • 11 hour, 11 day and the 11 month

    • Compromises on national self-determination

      • Boundaries could not correspond with ethnic groupings

    • Agreement for reparations

      • Germany confessed responsibility

    • Obtaining the German signature

      • Coreced

    • Treaty Versailles, 1918


    League of nations

    League of Nations

    • Equal Voice of Members

    • Court of International Justice

    • Article X of the Covenant

      • Military and economic sanctions against aggressors


    Domestic unrest

    Domestic Unrest

    • Lack of leadership

    • Unplanned demobilization

    • Spanish Flu Pandemic

      • 22 million world wide

      • 675,000 deaths in U.S.

    • Drop in farm prices

    • Labor unrest

      • Strikes

    • Race Riots

      • Red Summer of 1919

      • Texas

      • Alleged assault on White women


    Red scare

    Red Scare

    • Fear of radicals

    • Bombs in the mail

    • Deportation of aliens

    • Evaporation of the Red Scare

    • Legacy of the Red Scare


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