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### Degenerate neutrino as a Dark Energy

12th Marcel Grossmann Meeting, 12-18 July 2009, Paris

Hyung Won Lee, Inje University

July 15, 2009

Collaboration with K.Y. Kim, R. Ruffini

Contents

- Introduction
- Properties of degenerate neutrino
- Evolution of density parameters
- Possibility as a dark energy
- Remarks

Apparent Bolometric Magnitude m(z)

Introduction- Universe is in accelerating expansionRiess & Perlmutter

Introduction

- Universe is in accelerating expansionRiess & Perlmutter

Introduction

- Universe is in accelerating expansionRiess & Perlmutter

Introduction

- Universe is in accelerating expansionRiess & Perlmutter

Introduction

- The present Universe

- accelerated expansion supernova type Ia (SN Ia) data EOS (equation of state)
- Main issue of the present cosmology : How to explain the present accelerating universe?negative pressure : Dark Energy candidate: cosmological constant , quintessence , k- essence , holographic dark energy , phantom matter , MaVaN …

Introduction

- All candidates have weakness
- No physical explanation is given
- Can we explain dark energy or accelerating expansion with some physical principle?
- Can we explain accelerating expansion with neutrinos?

Properties of degenerate neutrino

- Decouple at early time
- Energy density proportional to degeneracy parameter
- It may have mass

Evolution of density parameters

- Hubble equation
- Distance modulus

Evolution of density parameters

- (0.1, 0.9), (0.3, 0.7), (0.5, 0.7), LCDM

Possibility as a dark energy

- Light mass : do not generate structure
- May dominate energy density with degeneracy
- Evolution may different from standard cosmology

Possibility as a dark energy

- It is not possible to explain with standard consideration
- Need to study carefully Boltzmann equation

Remarks

- It seems not possible as a dark energy except mass varying with scalar field coupling
- Cosmological integration of kinematic equation

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