TNG QUAN V CC NHM VT LIU XY DNG
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TỔNG QUAN VỀ CÁC NHÓM VẬT LIỆU XÂY DỰNG THEO CẤU TRÚC VẬT LIỆU HỌC PowerPoint PPT Presentation


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TỔNG QUAN VỀ CÁC NHÓM VẬT LIỆU XÂY DỰNG THEO CẤU TRÚC VẬT LIỆU HỌC. Vật liệu ....................... thường là tổ hợp chủ yếu của các nguyên tố kim loại: - Tính dẫn điện, dẫn nhiệt cao, có ánh kim, tính phản xạ ánh sáng. - Độ bền cơ học cao, kém bền hóa học

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TỔNG QUAN VỀ CÁC NHÓM VẬT LIỆU XÂY DỰNG THEO CẤU TRÚC VẬT LIỆU HỌC

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T ng quan v c c nh m v t li u x y d ng theo c u tr c v t li u h c

TNG QUAN V CC NHM VT LIU XY DNG

THEO CU TRC VT LIU HC

Vt liu ....................... thng l t hp ch yu ca cc nguyn t kim loi:

- Tnh dn in, dn nhit cao, c nh kim, tnh phn x nh sng.

- bn c hc cao, km bn ha hc

=> Kim loi v hp kim chim v tr ch o trong sn xut c kh, xy dng. Ring hp kim lm tng bn c hc, bn ha hc.

Vt liu ............................. phn ln l ngun gc hu c, ch yu l cacbon, hidr v cc kim, c cu trc i phn t:

- Dn in km, khi lng ring nh.

- Tnh do cao, c bit l nhit thng.

- Bn ho hc nhit thng, d lo ho.

=> Vt liu pht trin mnh gia th k XX: my mc, thit b xy dng.

Vt liu .....................Kt hp 2 hay 3 loi vt liu trn m hu nh mang cc c tnh tt ca vt liu thnh phn.

Hin nay, thng dng ph bin c cc loi compozit h kp:

kim loi polyme,

kim loi ceramic, polime ceramic

vi nhng tnh cht mi l v hp dn hn

=> pht trin mnh cui th k XX trong ch to my mc, xy dngrt nh, rt bn m 3 vt liu kia khng c c.

Vt liu ..................................: hp cht gia kim loi, silic vi kim (kim loi lng tnh):

- Dn nhit, dn in rt km. Cng, gin

- Bn nhit cao, bn ho hc hn kim loi v hu c.

=> l vt liu lu i nht.


T ng quan v c c nh m v t li u x y d ng theo c u tr c v t li u h c

TNG QUAN V CC NHM VT LIU XY DNG

THEO CU TRC VT LIU HC

Cc nhm khc: cc nhm ny thng dng trong cng ngh in t, vin thng, cn xy dng t dng.

- Vt liu bn dn, siu dn nhit thp, siu dn nhit cao (nm trung gian gia kim loi v ceramic)

- Silicon (nm trung gian gia v c v hu c

- Vt liu siu sch (polime dn in)


T ng quan v c c nh m v t li u x y d ng theo c u tr c v t li u h c

PHN 1: CC LOI VT LIU THEO CU TRC VT LIU HC

CHNG 1:

VT LIU V C TRONG XY DNG

  • VT LIU GM XY DNG

  • XIMNG

  • BTNG XIMNG

3


T ng quan v c c nh m v t li u x y d ng theo c u tr c v t li u h c

1. VT LIU GM XY DNG

1.1. KHI NIM: l nhng vt liu nhn to, c sn xut t t st bng cch to hnh v nung nhit cao (qua qu trnh gia cng c hc v gia cng nhit). Do qu trnh thay i l, ho trong khi nung nn vt liu nung c tnh cht khc hn vi nguyn liu ban u

  • NGUYN LIU CHNH: t st hoc cao lanh (t st trng)

  • Cao lanh (t st nguyn sinh) l sn phm thu c ti ni phong ho. Thnh phn khong vt l Cao lanh c nhiu ct nn khng mn. Ch yu dng sn xut

  • t st (t st th sinh) c to thnh do s tch t, lng ng ca dng cao lanh b cun tri di tc dng ca nc, bng h, gi, bo. Thnh phn khong l .. Dng sn xut ..


T ng quan v c c nh m v t li u x y d ng theo c u tr c v t li u h c

1. VT LIU GM XY DNG

  • 1.2. U, NHC IM:

  • 1.2.1. u im:

  • .

  • .............................................................

  • -

  • 1.2.2. Nhc im:

  • -

  • -.

  • - .

  • .

  • 1.2.3. Xu hng pht trin

5


T ng quan v c c nh m v t li u x y d ng theo c u tr c v t li u h c

1. VT LIU GM XY DNG

  • 1.3. CC SN PHM GM XY DNG:

  • - Vt liu xy

  • Vt liu lp

  • Vt liu p lt

  • Sn phm snh dng

  • S v sinh

  • Vt liu gm chu la

  • Vt liu keramzit

  • Vt liu thu tinh

6


T ng quan v c c nh m v t li u x y d ng theo c u tr c v t li u h c

1.3.1. VT LIU XY: Cc loi gch c,rng, xp.

1.3.1.1. Nguyn tc sn xut: .

1.3.1.2. Mt s sn phm ca vt liu xy:

a. Gch ch (gch c tiu chun):


T ng quan v c c nh m v t li u x y d ng theo c u tr c v t li u h c

1.3.1.2. Mt s sn phm ca vt liu xy:

a. GCH C (CH): Theo TCVN 1451 1998 c:

Ngoi ra, cn c mt s loi gch khng quy cch khc nhng phi m bo cc yu cu di y:

+ Gch c t st nung c dng hnh hp ch nht vi cc mt phng, trn mt ca vin gch c th c rnh hoc gn kha. Cnh vin gch c th ln trn vi bn knh khng ln hn 5mm, theo mt ct vung gc vi phng n p.

+ Sai lch kch thc ca vin gch khng vt qu quy nh: Theo chiu di: 6mm; chiu rng: 4mm; chiu dy: 3mm i vi gch c 60; 2mm i vi gch c 45

+ Khuyt tt v hnh dng bn ngoi khng vt qua quy nh sau: cong trn mt y, mt cnh, khng ln hn :4mm. S vt nt xuyn sut chiu dy, ko sang chiu rng khng qu 20mm,khng ln hn: 1. S vt st cnh, st gc su t 5 10mm, chiu di theo cnh t 10 15mm, khng ln hn: 2

+ Ting g phi trong thanh, mu nu ti ng u, b mt mn khng bm phn.

+ Khi lng ring 2,5 2,7 g/cm3, khi lng th tch 1,7 1,9 g/cm3, h s dn nhit = 0,5 0,8 kcal/m.0C.h, ht nc theo khi lng khng ln hn 16%


T ng quan v c c nh m v t li u x y d ng theo c u tr c v t li u h c

GCH C:

1.3.1.2. Mt s sn phm ca vt liu xy:

a. GCH C (CH):Theo TCVN 1451 1998 c:

+ Cng nn v un ca gch theo tng Mac khng c nh hn gi tr nu trong bng sau:

+ K hiu quy c cho gch c ghi theo th t:

....................................................................................................................

V d: Gch c dy 60mm, mac 200, k hiu: Gch c 60 M200 TCVN 1451 98

- Gch ch c s dng rng ri xy tng, ct, mng, ng khi, lt nn.


T ng quan v c c nh m v t li u x y d ng theo c u tr c v t li u h c

1.3.1.2. Mt s sn phm ca vt liu xy:

b. GCH RNG (ng):

- Cc loi gch dng tiu chun ny c khi lng th tch nh hn 1,6g/cm3, nu ln hn c xem nh gch c v p dng theo TCVN 1451 1998. Theo yu cu s dng, khi sn xut c th to 2, 4, 6, l. Loi gch ny thng c dng xy tng ngn, tng nh khung chu lc, sn xut cc tm tng c sn.

- TCVN 1450 98 quy nh kch thc c bn ca gch rng nh sau:


T ng quan v c c nh m v t li u x y d ng theo c u tr c v t li u h c

1.3.1.2. Mt s sn phm ca vt liu xy:

b. GCH RNG (ng):

- Cc loi gch dng tiu chun ny c khi lng th tch nh hn 1,6g/cm3, nu ln hn c xem nh gch c v p dng theo TCVN 1451 1998. Theo yu cu s dng, khi sn xut c th to 2, 4, 6, l. Loi gch ny thng c dng xy tng ngn, tng nh khung chu lc, sn xut cc tm tng c sn.

- TCVN 1450 98 quy nh kch thc c bn ca gch rng nh sau:


T ng quan v c c nh m v t li u x y d ng theo c u tr c v t li u h c

1.3.1.2. Mt s sn phm ca vt liu xy:

b. GCH RNG (ng):

Ngoi cc loi kch thc c bn trn cn mt s gch c kch thc khc nh 220x105x90, 220x105x200 nhng cng phi m bo theo cc yu cu sau:

+ Gch rng t st nung c dng hnh hp ch nht vi cc mt phng, trn mt ca vin gch c th c rnh hoc gn kha. Cnh vin gch c th ln trn vi bn knh khng ln hn 5mm, theo mt ct vung gc vi phng n p.

+ Sai lch kch thc ca vin gch khng vt qu quy nh: chiu di: 6mm

-chiu rng: 4mm; chiu dy: 3mm i vi gch c 60

(gch rng c chiu dy = rng th tnh sai lch theo chiu dy)

+ Chiu dy thnh ngoi l rng, khng nh hn 10mm. Chiu dy vch ngn gia cc l rng, khng nh hn 8mm.

+ Khuyt tt v hnh dng bn ngoi khng vt qua quy nh sau:

cong trn mt y, mt cnh, khng ln hn : 5mm. S vt nt xuyn sut chiu dy c di n 60mm, ko sang chiu rng n hng l th nht, khng ln hn: 1. S vt st cnh, st gc su t 5 10mm, chiu di theo cnh t 10 15mm, khng ln hn: 2

+ Ting g phi trong thanh, mu nu ti ng u, b mt mn khng bm phn.

+ Khi lng ring 2,5 2,7 g/cm3, khi lng th tch 1,1 1,4 g/cm3, h s dn nhit = 0,4 kcal/m.0C.h, ht nc theo khi lng khng ln hn 16%


T ng quan v c c nh m v t li u x y d ng theo c u tr c v t li u h c

1.3.1.2. Mt s sn phm ca vt liu xy:

b. GCH RNG (ng):

+ Cng nn v un ca gch theo tng Mac khng c nh hn gi tr nu trong bng sau:

+ K hiu quy c cho gch rng ghi theo th t:

......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

V d: Gch rng dy 90mm, 4 l ch nht, rng 40%, mac 50, k hiu:

Gch rng 90 4 CN 40 M50 TCVN 1450 98


T ng quan v c c nh m v t li u x y d ng theo c u tr c v t li u h c

  • 1.3.1.2. Mt s sn phm ca vt liu xy:

  • c. GCH XP (NH): Gch nh l tn gi chung cho cc loi gch c khi lng th tch nh hn gch ch v gch c l rng.

  • Loi gch ny c ch to bng cch ...................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

  • Khi lng th tch ca loi ny khong 1,2 1,3 g/cm3, h s dn nhit = 0,3 - 0,4 kcal/m.0C.h

  • - Loi gch ny c cng chu lc thp nn ch c s dng xy tng ngn, tng cch nhit, lp chng nng cho mi btng ct thp.


T ng quan v c c nh m v t li u x y d ng theo c u tr c v t li u h c

  • 1.3.1.3. u, nhc v xu hng pht trin ca gch xy t st nung:

  • u, nhc:

  • Xu hng pht trin:

  • Hin nay trn th gii c hai xu hng:

  • + ...............................................................................................................

  • + ..................................................................................................................

  • V sao vy ?


T ng quan v c c nh m v t li u x y d ng theo c u tr c v t li u h c

  • Theo thng k ca B Xy dng, sn xut 1 t vin gch t st nung c kch thc tiu chun s tiu tn khong 1,5 triu m3 t st, tng ng 75ha t nng nghip, v 150.000 tn than, thi ra khong 0,57 triu tn kh CO2, gy hiu ng nh knh v cc kh thi c hi khc gy nhim mi trng. Theo , nu c ko di tnh trng trn, Vit Nam s b mt t canh tc, tiu tn hng triu tn than mi nm, gy nhim mi trng trm trng.

  • Vy, gii php no cho vt liu xy ?


T ng quan v c c nh m v t li u x y d ng theo c u tr c v t li u h c

Do , vic tng bc trin khai thay th gch t st nung bng vt liu xy khng nung s em li nhiu hiu qu tch cc v mt kinh t, x hi, bo v mi trng, ng thi s hn ch cc bt li trn, ngoi ra cn gip tiu th mt phn ng k ph thi cc ngnh khc nh: nhit in, luyn kim, khai khong gp phn tit kim ti nguyn thin nhin, gim chi ph x l ph thi, gim thiu nhim mi trng, hng ti mt t nc pht trin bn vng.Ngy 5/5/2010, ti H Ni, B Xy dng, Hi Vt liu xy dng v Vin Vt liu xy dng phi hp t chc Hi tho quc t vi ch : Cc gii php u t, sn xut v s dng vt liu xy khng nung thay th gch t st nung.Do vy chnh sch pht trin bn vng i vi ngnh vt liu xy dng c xc nh trong Quyt nh ca Th tng Chnh ph s 121/2008/Q-TTg ngy 29/8/2008. thc hin quan im, mc tiu, nhim v nu trong Quyt nh, B Xy dng xy dng Chng trnh pht trin vt liu xy dng khng nung n nm 2020 v c Th tng Chnh ph ph duyt ti Quyt nh s 567/Q-TTg ngy 28/4/2010.


T ng quan v c c nh m v t li u x y d ng theo c u tr c v t li u h c

Chng trnh cng t ra mc tiu c th pht trin sn xut v s dng loi vt liu ny thay th gch t st nung t t l 20-25% vo nm 2015 v 30-40% vo nm 2020.

Ni dung chng trnh nu r, s c 3 chng loi vt liu xy dng khng nung c pht trin sn xut v s dng gm:

- .......................................(74% vo nm 2015 v 70% vo nm 2020)

- ........................................(21% vo nm 2015 v 25% vo nm 2020 )

- v cc loi gch khc ( 5% t nm 2015)


T ng quan v c c nh m v t li u x y d ng theo c u tr c v t li u h c

chng trnh c thc hin ng k hoch, Chnh ph quy nh, cc d n ch to thit b sn xut vt liu xy khng nung nh v sn xut gch xi mng ct liu cng sut t 7 triu vin/nm tr ln ngoi cc chnh sch u i v thu nhp khu, thu nhp doanh nghip, u i v h tr khc theo quy nh hin hnh cn c hng u i nh i vi cc d n thuc chng trnh c kh trng im.T nm 2011, cc cng trnh nh cao tng (t 9 tng tr ln) s dng ti thiu 30% vt liu xy dng khng nung loi nh trong tng s vt liu xy.

Cu hi: Th gch khng nung l g ? Bao gm nhng sn phm no ? So snh u nhc im vi vt liu nung ? V sao u im ca khng nung nhiu vy m Vit Nam vn cha s dng nhiu ?


T ng quan v c c nh m v t li u x y d ng theo c u tr c v t li u h c

1.3.1.3. u nhc v xu hng pht trin ca gch t st nung:

c. Gch khng nung:

Gch khng nung l ..

V bn cht ca s lin kt to hnh, gch khng nung khc hn gch t nung. Qu trnh s dng gch khng nung, do cc phn ng ho ca n trong hn hp to gch s tng dn bn theo thi gian. Tt c cc tng kt v th nghim trn c cp giy chng nhn: bn, rn vin gch khng nung tt hn gch t st nung v c kim chng tt c cc nc trn th gii: M, c, Trung Quc, Nht Bn,


T ng quan v c c nh m v t li u x y d ng theo c u tr c v t li u h c

  • 1.3.1.3. u nhc v xu hng pht trin ca gch t st nung:

  • c. Gch khng nung: c to ra bng phng php khng nung qua la.

  • c 1. Gch ximng - ct liu (ct, mt ):

  • Cng chu lc tt .........................................

  • o > (kg/m3) . Kt cu l o <...............(kg/m3).

  • * Cc sn phm in hnh:

  • Gch hoa xi mng lt nn ...............................................

  • Gch lt granito ..............................................................................

  • Gch c ..................................................................................

  • Gch block btng ................................................................................

  • Gch btng t chn .........................................................................................


T ng quan v c c nh m v t li u x y d ng theo c u tr c v t li u h c

Gch hoa xi mng lt nn

  • Dng lt trang tr. Sn xut bng phng php p bn kh hn hp gm xi mng, ct vng. B mt gch c ph mt lp h xi mng trng, bt mu v trang tr cc loi hoa vn khc nhau. Gch hoa xi mng lt nn c dng ch yu l hnh vung. Kch thc c bn ca gch v sai lch kch thc c quy nh nh sau:

  • Chiu di cnh : 200mm 0,5mm.

  • Chiu dy : 16 mm; 18 mm v 20 mm.

  • Chiu lp trang tr khng nh hn 2,5 mm.

  • Ngoi hnh dng v kch thc trn c th sn xut gch theo hnh dng v kch thc khc nhau nhng sai lch cng phi theo ng quy nh ny.

  • B mt gch phi phng nhn khng c vt xc, cc gc phi vung, cnh phi thng.

  • Theo TCVN 6065 :1995 gch hoa xi mng phi m bo cc ch tiu c l sau:

  • - mi mn lp mt khng ln hn 0,45g/cm2.

  • - ht nc khng ln hn 10%.

  • - chu lc va p xung kch khng nh hn 25 ln.

  • - Ti trng un gy ton vin khng nh hn 100 daN/vin.

  • - t cng lp b mt gch.

Gch c bo qun trong kho c mi che, gi m khng qu 5 ngy v xut xng khng sm hn 10 ngy, k t ngy sn xut. Khi vn chuyn sn phm c xp ng thnh cc hng, mt chnh ca 2 vin p vo nhau v xp cao khng qu 3 hng gch. Cc u dy gch c chn cht, trnh xc, st, v.


T ng quan v c c nh m v t li u x y d ng theo c u tr c v t li u h c

Gch lt granito

- Dng lt (hoc p) hon thin cng trnh xy dng, c sn xut bng cch p bn kh hn hp phi liu bao gm xi mng, ct vng, ht hoa, bt v bt mu. Thng c dng hnh vung, kch thc v sai lnh c quy nh nh sau :

Di cnh : 400mm 1mm; 300mm 1mm

Chiu dy : 23mm 1,5mm.

Ngoi cc hnh dng v kch thc c bn trn gch granito cng c th c sn xut theo cc hnh dng kch thc khc nhng sai lch kch thc cng phi tun theo ng quy nh:

- B mt sn phm phi phng nhn, mu sc hi ha, c bng phn nh c hnh dng vt th t trn n b mt. Ht ni ln trn b mt mi nhn c phn b ng u.

- Cc gc ca vin gch phi vung, cc cnh phi thng.

Theo TCVN 6074 :1995 gch lt granito phi m bo cc ch tiu c l sau :

- mi mn lp mt khng ln hn 0,45g/cm2.

- chu lc va p xung kch khng nh hn 20 ln.

- t cng lp b mt gch.

- Sn phm c bo qun trong kho c v khng ng nc, sn phm c xp ring tng loi theo kch thc, mu sc v xp ng thnh tng dy mt nhn p vo nhau, chiu cao khng ln hn 1,6 m.

- Khi vn chuyn sn phm phi c chn cht bng vt liu mm trnh st, v.


T ng quan v c c nh m v t li u x y d ng theo c u tr c v t li u h c

ct vng 1 mu gn sng

Gch bng

Bng kem gn sng

Bng kem

bng xanh


T ng quan v c c nh m v t li u x y d ng theo c u tr c v t li u h c

Cng trnh Keangnam (ng Phm Hng, H Ni)

Gch c

M t tnh nng ca sn phm:

- Kch thc nh, hiu qu kt cu cho cng trnh rt cao, DmC95A-gch xy ta Keangnam

- Chu lc tt, cng cao, chng n, chng thm, kch thc chun xc.

Thnh phn:

- Xi mng- Ct Vng

- Mt - Ph gia

Tiu chun cht lng:c sn xut theo tiu chun Vit Nam:TCVN 6477:1999

, h thng qun l cht lng theo tiu chunISO 9001:2008.

Thng s k thut:

Gch DmC95A ti cng trng Keangnam


T ng quan v c c nh m v t li u x y d ng theo c u tr c v t li u h c

Gch block btng

Mt s hnh dng gch block btng


T ng quan v c c nh m v t li u x y d ng theo c u tr c v t li u h c

Gch block btng

Phn loi:

Gch blc b tng c phn loi nh sau:

Theo kch thc:

- Gch tiu chun (TC): c kch thc c bn theo bng.

- Gch d hnh (DH): c kch thc khc kch thc c bn, dng hon chnh khi xy (gch na, gch xy gc, gch c phn rng t ct thp).

Theo mc ch trang tr:

- Gch thng (T): b mt c mu sc t nhin ca b tng.

- Gch trang tr (TT): c thm lp nhn bng hoc nhm si vi mu sc trang tr khc nhau.


T ng quan v c c nh m v t li u x y d ng theo c u tr c v t li u h c

Kch thc chun Gch block btng

Yu cu k thut:

L rng ca vin gch c th xuyn sut hoc khng xuyn sut.

rng vin gch khng ln hn 65% v khi lng vin gch khng ln hn 20kg.

Mu sc ca gch trang tr trong cng mt l phi ng u.


T ng quan v c c nh m v t li u x y d ng theo c u tr c v t li u h c

Gch block btng

Yu cu k thut:

Khuyt tt ngoi quan cho php c quy nh theo bng :

dy ca cc thnh, vch vin gch khng nh hn cc gi tr trong bng sau


T ng quan v c c nh m v t li u x y d ng theo c u tr c v t li u h c

Gch block btng t chn

Mt s hnh dng v tn gi thng dng quy nh theo TCVN 6476 :1999


T ng quan v c c nh m v t li u x y d ng theo c u tr c v t li u h c

Gch block btng t chn

Kch thc v sai lch kch thc c qui nh theo TCVN6476:1999


T ng quan v c c nh m v t li u x y d ng theo c u tr c v t li u h c

1.3.1.3. u nhc v xu hng pht trin ca gch t st nung:

c. Gch khng nung:

c2. Gch nh:

Thnh phn c bn:

Gch b tng nh c hai loi c bn l


T ng quan v c c nh m v t li u x y d ng theo c u tr c v t li u h c

Gch btng nh kh chng p AAC


T ng quan v c c nh m v t li u x y d ng theo c u tr c v t li u h c

1.3.1.3. u nhc v xu hng pht trin ca gch t st nung:

c. Gch khng nung:

c3. Cc loi gch khc:

* Gch papanh:

* Gch khng nung t nhin:

* Gch canxisilicat


T ng quan v c c nh m v t li u x y d ng theo c u tr c v t li u h c

1.3.1.3. u nhc v xu hng pht trin ca gch t st nung:

c. Gch khng nung:

C4. u, nhc im v tnh hnh s dng VLXKN Vit Nam v th gii:

c ti liu, tng hp kin thc, sau :

- Nu u, nhc im gch khng nung ri phn tch;

- Nu tnh hnh s dng gch khng nung th gii ri phn tch

- Nu tnh hnh s dng gch khng nung Vit Nam ri phn tch.


T ng quan v c c nh m v t li u x y d ng theo c u tr c v t li u h c

Gch - ngi khng nung

u im chung:


T ng quan v c c nh m v t li u x y d ng theo c u tr c v t li u h c

So snh hiu qu kinh t k thut sn xut v s dng, sn phm vt liu xy dng khng nung c nhiu tnh cht vt tri hn vt liu nung. l:


T ng quan v c c nh m v t li u x y d ng theo c u tr c v t li u h c

D16XDDB: Tm v phn tch nhng u im ca gch khng nung so vi gch nung trong vic xy nh cao c v kho tng

D16XDCB: Tm v phn tch nhng u im ca vic dng gch khng nung lt ng so vi cc phng php lt ng h khc


T ng quan v c c nh m v t li u x y d ng theo c u tr c v t li u h c

Nhng u im ca gch khng nung so vi gch nung trong vic xy nh cao c v kho tng


T ng quan v c c nh m v t li u x y d ng theo c u tr c v t li u h c

Nhng u im ca vic dng gch khng nung lt ng so vi cc phng php lt ng h khc


T ng quan v c c nh m v t li u x y d ng theo c u tr c v t li u h c

Gch - ngi khng nung

Nhc im:

Tnh hnh s dng trong nc:


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