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School Psychology

School Psychology

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NASP 2001

Years of Psychometric and Research Advances in School Psychology

Fifty

Richard W. Woodcock

April 19, 2001

Fifty years of …

Cognitive theory and assessment

Fifty years of …

Cognitive theory and assessment

Psychometrics and test development

Fifty years of …

Cognitive theory and assessment

Psychometrics and test development

Research techniques and tools

Path of Progress

Better Better Better Better

Cognitive CognitiveInform- Instructional

Theory Tests tion Planning

The primary purpose for testing should be to find out more about the problem, not to get an IQ.

Conceptualizations of Intelligence

Single

General

Ability

Conceptualizations of Intelligence

Single

General

Ability

Pair

of

Abilities

Conceptualizations of Intelligence

Single

General

Ability

Pair

of

Abilities

Incomplete Set of

Broad

Abilities

Conceptualizations of Intelligence

Single

General

Ability

Pair

of

Abilities

Incomplete Set of

Broad

Abilities

“Complete”

Set of

Broad

Abilities

Nine Broad CHC Factors

- Stores of Acquired Knowledge
- Comprehension-Knowledge (Gc)
- Reading-Writing (Grw)
- Mathematics (Gq)

Nine Broad CHC Factors

- Stores of Acquired Knowledge
- Comprehension-Knowledge (Gc)
- Reading-Writing (Grw)
- Mathematics (Gq)
- Thinking Abilities
- Long-Term Retrieval (Glr)
- Visual-Spatial Thinking (Gv)
- Auditory Processing (Ga)
- Fluid Reasoning (Gf)

Nine Broad CHC Factors

- Stores of Acquired Knowledge
- Comprehension-Knowledge (Gc)
- Reading-Writing (Grw)
- Mathematics (Gq)
- Thinking Abilities
- Long-Term Retrieval (Glr)
- Visual-Spatial Thinking (Gv)
- Auditory Processing (Ga)
- Fluid Reasoning (Gf)
- Cognitive Efficiency
- Processing Speed (Gs)
- Short-Term Memory (Gsm)

Conceptualizations of Intelligence

Single

General

Ability

Pair

of

Abilities

Incomplete Set of

Broad

Abilities

“Complete”

Set of

Broad

Abilities

Narrow

Abilities

Underlying

Broad

Abilities

Examples of Narrow Abilities

Comprehension-Knowledge (Gc)

Language development (LD)

General information (K0)

Listening ability (LS)

Examples of Narrow Abilities

Comprehension-Knowledge (Gc)

Language development (LD)

General information (K0)

Listening ability (LS)

Long-Term Retrieval (Glr)

Associative memory (MA)

Meaningful memory (MM)

Naming facility (NA)

Examples of Narrow Abilities

Comprehension-Knowledge (Gc)

Language development (LD)

General information (K0)

Listening ability (LS)

Long-Term Retrieval (Glr)

Associative memory (MA)

Meaningful memory (MM)

Naming facility (NA)

Short-Term Memory (Gsm)

Working memory (WM)

Memory span (MS)

6

5

CONCEPTUALIZATION LEVEL

4

3

2

1

0

1910

1920

1930

1940

1950

1960

1970

1980

1990

2000

2010

YEAR OF PUBLICATION

Trend of Conceptualizations

The Good News …

Tests of the future will be more informative.

… and the Bad News

Tests of the future will be more informative.

Tests of the future will be more complex as test developers close the gap between cognitive theory and practice.

CHC Cognitive Performance Model

Stores of

Acquired Knowledge

(Gc. Gq, Grw)

Thinking Abilities

(Glr, Gv, Ga, Gf)

Cognitive/Academic

PERFORMANCE

Cognitive Efficiency

(Gs.Gsm)

CHC Cognitive Performance Model

Stores of

Acquired Knowledge

(Gc. Gq, Grw)

Thinking Abilities

(Glr, Gv, Ga, Gf)

Cognitive/Academic

PERFORMANCE

Cognitive Efficiency

(Gs.Gsm)

Facilitator-Inhibitors

(Internal, External)

Two Concomitant Developments

Joint factor analysis studies

Cross-battery assessment

Institute for Applied Psychometrics

www.IAPsych.com

Join the Cattell-Horn-Carroll (CHC) Discussion Listserv at….

- At IAP home page click on
- “Join one of IAP listservs”
- On listserv page, enter your email address
- in the box provided and then click the
- ‘Join List' button
- Follow instructions as provided
- Enjoy

Psychometrics & Test Development

- 1. The Test Standards
- 2. Rasch model analysis
- 3. Co-norming of cognitive and achievement tests

Psychometrics & Test Development

- 1. The Test Standards

Test Standards

1954: Technical Recommendations for Psychological Tests and Diagnostic Techniques

Test Standards

1954: Technical Recommendations for Psychological Tests and Diagnostic Techniques

1966, 1974, 1985, 1999: Standards for Educational and Psychological Testing

Psychometrics & Test Development

- 1. The Test Standards
- 2. Rasch model analysis

Sample-free calibration

Sample-free calibration

Item-free measurement

Sample-free calibration

Item-free measurement

Simplified equating of tests

Sample-free calibration

Item-free measurement

Simplified equating of tests

Item difficulty and person ability are on same scale

Sample-free calibration

Item-free measurement

Simplified equating of tests

Item difficulty and person ability are on same scale

Extends variety of interpretation options for test

Psychometrics & Test Development

- 1. The Test Standards
- 2. Rasch model analysis
- 3. Co-norming of cognitive and achievement tests

- Research Techniques and Tools
- Computing equipment

Research Techniques and Tools

1. Computing equipment

2. Statistical methods

Computing Equipment

The thrill of being on the edge of technology 50 years ago!

Computing Equipment

- Slide rule
- Large graph paper
- Flexible curve

Computing Equipment

- Slide rule
- Large graph paper
- Flexible curve
- Mechanical calculators

Computing Equipment

- Slide rule
- Large graph paper
- Flexible curve
- Mechanical calculators
- Electric calculators

Computing Equipment

- Slide rule
- Large graph paper
- Flexible curve
- Mechanical calculators
- Electric calculators
- Mainframe computers
- 24K memory, punch cards

Computing Equipment

- Slide rule
- Large graph paper
- Flexible curve
- Mechanical calculators
- Electric calculators
- Mainframe computers
- 24K memory, punch cards

- Seven-step desktop computer

Computing Equipment

- Slide rule
- Large graph paper
- Flexible curve
- Mechanical calculators
- Electric calculators
- Mainframe computers
- 24K memory, punch cards

- Seven-step desktop computer
- Programmable hand calculators

Computing Equipment

- Slide rule
- Large graph paper
- Flexible curve
- Mechanical calculators
- Electric calculators
- Mainframe computers
- 24K memory, punch cards

- Seven-step desktop computer
- Programmable hand calculators
- Desk and notebook computers

Computing Equipment

- Slide rule
- Large graph paper
- Flexible curve
- Mechanical calculators
- Electric calculators
- Mainframe computers
- 24K memory, punch cards

- Seven-step desktop computer
- Programmable hand calculators
- Desk and notebook computers

Research Techniques and Tools

1. Computing equipment

2. Statistical methods

Statistical Methods

- Exploratory factor analysis
- Analysis of variance

Statistical Methods

- Exploratory factor analysis
- Analysis of variance
- Multiple regression analysis

Statistical Methods

- Exploratory factor analysis
- Analysis of variance
- Multiple regression analysis
- Imputation of missing data
- Bootstrapping (re-sampling)

Statistical Methods

- Exploratory factor analysis
- Analysis of variance
- Multiple regression analysis
- Imputation of missing data
- Bootstrapping (re-sampling)
- Structural equation modeling
- Confirmatory factor analysis

Statistical Methods

- Exploratory factor analysis
- Analysis of variance
- Multiple regression analysis
- Imputation of missing data
- Bootstrapping (re-sampling)
- Structural equation modeling
- Confirmatory factor analysis
- Complex curve fitting programs

Modern Curve Fitting

Modern Curve Fitting

C21m W1A

X= Age (Months)

Y= RefW

Eqn# 6703 y=a+bx^(0.5)+cx+dx^(1.5)+ex^2+fx^(2.5)+gx^3+hx^(3.5)

r2=0.9949427700336424

r2adj=0.9948577745720229

StdErr=1.030369477534328

Fstat=13406.20131865417

a= 168.0310226803962

b= 120.7086341000681

c= -19.73055027984703

d= 1.828054845931321

e= -0.100400733326419

f= 0.003206717255504859

g= -5.479479098921161E-05

h= 3.861139075124612E-07

Modern Curve Fitting

Modern Curve Fitting

X= Age (Months) Y= RefW

Eqn# 6870 Chebyshev=>Std Polynomial Order 20

r2=0.9999241264424508

r2adj=0.9999109583043638

StdErr=0.4094307628464526

Fstat=80390.8155662631

y=256.4311688688844+x*(13.10496360877917+

x*(-0.5427430174673811+x*(0.01376937474584163+

x*(-0.0002168265655293270+x*(2.276713085026848E-06+

x*(-1.682507845015114E-08+x*(9.094579707795152E-11+

x*(-3.696623253703684E-13+x*(1.152407982080169E-15+

x*(-2.793128999308678E-18+x*(5.308052230358075E-21+

x*(-7.939678320586450E-24+x*(9.340340309762284E-27+

x*(-8.591743335417776E-30+x*(6.105292803850054E-33+

x*(-3.282606641401848E-36+x*(1.290343815843724E-39+

x*(-3.496414979019896E-43+x*(5.834823682547657E-47+

x*-4.518103329325873E-51))))))))))))))))))); return(y);

Statistical Methods

- Exploratory factor analysis
- Analysis of variance
- Multiple regression analysis
- Imputation of missing data
- Bootstrapping (re-sampling)
- Structural equation modeling
- Confirmatory factor analysis
- Complex curve fitting programs
- Data mining

Statistical Methods

- Exploratory factor analysis
- Analysis of variance
- Multiple regression analysis
- Imputation of missing data
- Bootstrapping (re-sampling)
- Structural equation modeling
- Confirmatory factor analysis
- Complex curve fitting programs
- Data mining

What’s next?