Seminar on 4g wireless technology
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Seminar on 4g wireless technology l.jpg

Seminar on4G WIRELESS Technology

PratisthaKhare


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Contents

  • Introduction

    • History of Wireless Technology

    • 1G,2G,2.5G,2.75G,3G,4G

  • 4G in detail

  • Technologies used in 4G

    • IPv6

    • Smart Antennas

    • Software Defined Radio

    • OFDM

  • Features

  • Limitations

  • Future Enhancement

  • Conclusion


  • Introduction l.jpg
    Introduction

    • The nomenclature of the generations generally refers to a change in the fundamental nature of the service, transmission technology, spectral bandwidth and new frequency bands.

    • New generations have appeared about every ten years since the first move from 1981 analog (1G) to digital (2G) transmission in 1992. This was followed, in 2001, by 3G multi-media support, spread spectrum transmission and at least 200 kbit/s, in 2011 expected to be followed by 4G, which refers to all-IP packet-switched networks, mobile ultra-broadband (gigabit speed) access and multi-carrier transmission.



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    1G

    • Services-Analog voice transmission

    • Drawbacks-

      • Poor voice quality

      • Large phone size

      • Limited capacity

      • Poor battery life

      • No security


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    2G

    • Services-

      • Digital voice transmission

      • Short messages

    • Drawback-

      • Weaker digital signals

      • Reduced range of sound


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    2.5G(Second And A Half Generation)

    • Services-

      • GPRS(General Packet Radio Services)

        • Speeds up to 114KBPS probably more.

    2.75G ( Pre-3g Radio Technology)

    • EDGE (Enhanced Data Rates for Global Evolution)  is a digitalmobile phone technology that allows improved data transmission .

    •  EDGE was deployed on GSM networks .


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    3G

    • Services-

      • Multimedia Support.

      • Broadband data up to 2Mbps.

    • Drawbacks-

      • Higher cost

      • Higher bandwidth requirement.


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    Why 4G is required?

    • Due to substantial growth in overall number of subscribers.

    • Due to massive demand of new services like data , audio , image or video .


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    MAGIC

    • Mobile Multimedia Communication

    • Anywhere ,Anytime with Anyone

    • Global Mobility Support

    • Integrated Wireless Solution

    • Customized Personal Service


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    4G

    • Advantages-

      • Better data rate

      • Better security

      • Better handoff

      • Totally IP oriented.

      • Supports lower generation communication system

      • Network capacity is more

      • Support for multimedia services like teleconferencing and wireless internet.


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    Technologies used in 4G

    • Software Defined Radio (SDR)

    • IPv6

    • Smart Antennas

    • OFDM


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    Software Defined Radio(SDR)

    • It can be configured to any radio or frequency standard through the use of software.

    • The phone should automatically switch from operating on a CDMA frequency to a TDMA frequency whenever it is required.

    • Users can just download the interface upon entering new territory, or the software could just download automatically.


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    IPv6

    • IPv6 means Internet Protocol Version 6 .

    • It is used to locate devices.

    • IPv6 has a much larger address space than IPv4.

    • Its addresses take the form x:x:x:x:x:x:x:x

    • where each x is the hexadecimal value that makes up one eighth of the address.

    • Example : FEDC:BA98:7654:3210:FEDC:BA98:7654:3210.

    • Using this address format, there is room for approximately 3.40* 10^38 unique addresses. This is approximately 8.05* 10^28 times as large as the IPv4 address space and should have room for all wired and wireless devices, as well as room for all of the foreseeable expansion in several lifetimes. There are enough addresses for every phone to have a unique address.


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    Smart Antennas

    • Digital Wireless communication system.

    • Use diversity effect(transmission/reception of multiple RF waves to increase data speed and reduce effect)at source or destination or at both ends.

    • SISO(single input single output)

      • Conventional wireless communication

      • Multipath effect causes fading

      • Reduction of data speed.

      • Major categories:

        • SIMO

        • MISO

        • MIMO(eliminates the multipath effect)


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    Types of smart antennas

    • Phased Array/Multibeam Antenna

      • A no. of fixed beams with a single beam turned on towards the desired signal OR a single beam steered towards the desired signal.

    • Adaptive Array

      •   the beam pattern changes as the desired user or the interference move to allow for the maximum signal to be received.


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    OFDM(Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing)

    • OFDM is a multicarrier system

      • Uses Discrete Fourier Transform/Fast Fourier Transform (DFT/FFT)

    • Available bandwidth is divided into very many narrow bands

      is transmitted in parallel

      on these bands

      allows transmitting very high data rates over channels at a comparable low complexity. 


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    Transmission system

    • An OFDM transmitter accepts data from an IP network, converting and encoding the data prior to modulation. An IFFT (inverse fast Fourier transform) transforms the OFDM signal into an IF analog signal, which is sent to the RF transceiver. The receiver circuit reconstructs the data by reversing this process. With orthogonal sub-carriers, the receiver can separate and process each sub-carrier without interference from other sub-carriers. More impervious to fading and multi-path delays than other wireless transmission techniques, ODFM provides better link and communication quality.


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    Applications

    • VIRTUAL PRESENCE: This means that 4G provides user services at all times, even if the user is off-site.

    • VIRTUAL NAVIGATION: 4G provides users with virtual navigation through which a user can access a database of the streets, buildings etc.

    • TELE-GEOPROCESSING APPLICATIONS: This is a combination of GIS(Geographical Information System) and GPS (Global Positioning System) in which a user can get the location by querying.

    • CRISIS MANAGEMENT: Natural disasters can cause breakdown in communication systems. In today's world it might take days or weeks to restore the system. But in 4G it is expected to restore such crisis issues in a few hours.


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    Limitations

    • Costlier than 3G.

    • Hard to implement.

    • Need complicated Hardware.

    • Battery Usage is more.

    • Not possible to offer full internet experience due to limited speed and bandwidth.


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    Future Enhancement

    • Higher data rates

    • Advance feature

      • speaking without using vocal cords.

      • Communication using our senses.

      • Knowing the direction and distance of call.


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    Conclusion

    The mobile technology though reached only at 3G now, 4G offers us to provide with a very efficient and reliable wireless communication system for seamless roaming over various network . The 4G system will be implemented in the coming days which are a miracle in the field of communication engineering technology.




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