Hand held wireless computers in education
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Hand held wireless computers in education l.jpg

Hand Held Wireless Computers in Education

Marcia Wert

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Handheld Wireless Computers

  • Encompass:

    • PDA’s or Personal Digital Assistants

    • Wireless laptops/compact laptops/Ultra compact laptops

    • Mobile Phones

    • Smart Phones

    • Tablet PC’s

    • Game consoles - Wi

    • Media Players – Ipod’s

    • Hybrid devices - include a mixture of mobile phones and tablet PC’s

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Need for Handheld Wireless

  • The need for business professionals to keep track of:

    • Contacts

    • e-mail

    • voice mail

    • addresses

    • phone numbers

    • appointments

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Need for Handheld Wireless

  • Mobility of Communication to access the Internet

  • Ability to connect anytime - as long as an Internet portal is available

  • Need for speed to connect – electronic trading

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  • The project will be narrowed to Personal Digital Assistants or PDA’s

  • 2 Categories

    • Hand Held Computers:

      • Larger Liquid Crystal Display

      • Mini Keyboard

    • Palm-Size Computer

      • Stylus

      • Touch Screen and hand writing recognition

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  • Characteristics of PDA’s

    • No Hard Drive

    • Programs stored on Read-only Memory (ROM)

    • Microprocessor

    • Input/Output ports

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  • History of the PDA

  • These Companies invented and marketed their PDA’s

    • 1980 - Invented By Psion Company

    • 1993 - Apple used touch sensitive screens and handwriting recognition

    • 1995 - US Robotics – Palm Pilot

  • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Iz4GwLpxAhc

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Lead Thinkers

  • Lead Thinkers on this Research

    • Cheung Sum Wing

    • Hew Foon Khe

  • Lead Designers

    • Psion - Nick Healey - as a programmer, with a degree in Computer and Microprocessor Engineering

    • Apple- Newton- Steve Capps and Michael Tchao

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Problems in Development

  • Psion's weak point was Internet connectivity in countries where wireless service isn't available

  • Apple’s Newton-

    • Problem with fonts

    • Sent faxes

    • Limited communication

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Problems in Development

  • Palm Pilot - limited memory and a relatively slow processor, also key components still written in Assembler

    • Good assembler programmers

    • Development of programs

    • Instructions to write

    • Complex algorithms

    • Debugging

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Intended Market

  • In the beginning

    • The business world, in order to be mobile in communications

  • Present

    • Education Field

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  • On utilizing the devices as


    (20.5%)- Multimedia access

    (17.9%)-Task management tool

  • On the use of handhelds as


    (12.8%)-Capture tools


    (6.4%)-Analytical tools

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Steps for Innovation Process

  • Production

    - Initiated by Packaging

    • Licensing of PDA’s

  • Marketing

    • Consists of two 1 hour classes to instruct faculty and students on usage

  • Distribution

    • Set number of PDA’s for 2 classes and corresponding faculty

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Knowledge Stage

  • 1995 – Co-Worker

  • 2001 – PDA’s in the classroom

    A small video supporting knowledge studies from universities on PDA’s


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Persuasion Stage

  • Costs can be minimized

  • High Mobility

  • Good visuals in color, sound, and networking

  • Familiar “Start” menu

  • Standard Microsoft applications

  • Standard support for the hardware

  • Supports other Hardware

  • Increases motivation of students

Click on image

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Decision Stage

  • Investment

    • Faculty

    • Hardware costs

    • Software costs

    • Training costs

      • Information Technology

      • Faculty

      • Students


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Implementation Stage

But my PDA, unlike my phone, actually “persuaded”

me to learn how to better use it. (Schrage,2004)

  • Time period for Delivery – 1 month

  • One hour class to instruction students on the use

    of the PDA

  • Two hour classes to instruct faculty-

    “While the teachers were clear on the basic operations of the PDAs, they were caught by surprise concerning student engagement and in the ways the software could be used to pose or solve particular coding problems.” As stated by Goldman, Pea, Maldonado, Martin, White and associates at Stanford University (2004).

  • Active enrollment of students in credit classes and corresponding training classes

    Schrage, M. (2004). The power of Persuasion, Retrieved 10 05, 2009 from http://www.leighbureau.com/speakers/MSchrage/essays/persuasion.pdf

    Goldman, S., Pea, R., Maldonado, H., Martin, L. White, T. &

    the WILD Team @ Stanford University. (2004). Functioning in the wireless classroom, P. 5. Retrieved 10 06, 2009 from http://hci.stanford.edu/publications/2004/WILDClassroomWMTE2004/WILDClassroomWMTE2004.pdf

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Confirmation Stage

  • After Purchase

    • Faculty

    • Monthly informal meetings

    • E-Mail

    • Information Technology

    • Surveys


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Communication Channels

  • Knowledge – Mass Media for Education

  • Persuasion – Interpersonal

  • Decision – Interpersonal/

    Mass Media

  • Implementation – Interpersonal

  • Confirmation - Interpersonal

Be not the first by who the new is tried, nor the last to lay the old aside.

-Alexander Pope, An Essay on Criticism, Part II


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S-Curve for Adoption


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Key Innovators and Early Adopters

  • Younger Instructors

  • Non-tenure Instructors

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Strategies for Key Innovators and Early Adopters

  • Persuasion

  • Complexity

  • Compatibility

  • Ease of Use or Trail ability

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  • Older Instructors

    • Persuasion

  • Retirement

    • Persuasion

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Strategies for Laggards

  • Group and peer pressure

  • Change agents

  • Group meetings for faculty

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Hybrid of Centralized and Decentralized Approach

  • Centralized

  • Decentralized


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Key Change Agents

  • Dean

  • Faculty Leaders

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S-Curve for Adoption

Critical Mass

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Need for PDA’s

  • The need for PDA’s for this University

    • To promote future growth of the student populace by:

      • Accreditation

      • Improvement

      • Visualization of cutting edge technologies

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Need for PDA’s

  • For Faculty

    • Assessment

    • Analytical tools

    • Communication

    • Multimedia access

    • Task Management tool

    • Representational

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Need for PDA’s

  • For Students

    • Communication

    • Multimedia access

    • Task Management tool