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Process for developing content standards: the Model Development Life Cycle (MDLC) Overview of our XML-related tools Examples of tools for XML Schema validation

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A Development Process for Content Standards

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A development process for content standards l.jpg

A Development Process for Content Standards

KC Morris, Boonserm (Serm) Kulvatunyou, Josh Lubell, and Puja Goyal

US/DoC/NIST/MEL/MSID

Manufacturing Systems Integration Division


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Outline of the Talk

  • Who we are

  • Process for developing content standards: the Model Development Life Cycle (MDLC)

  • Overview of our XML-related tools

  • Examples of tools for XML Schema validation

Manufacturing Systems Integration Division


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Who We AreUS/DoC/NIST/MEL/MSID

  • United States Government

  • Department of Commerce

  • National Institute of Standards and Technology

  • Manufacturing Engineering Laboratory

  • Manufacturing Systems Integration Division (MSID)

    = A government resource that provides technical solutions to advance system integration capabilities.

Manufacturing Systems Integration Division


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NIST Interoperability Testbed

Legacy Migration

Through

Semantic

Mapping

Automotive

Inventory

Visibility

CAD/CAM

Integration

Simulation

System

Integration

Manufacturing

MetrologyInteroperability

(Inspection)

Process

Plant

Construction

Information

Integration

ManufacturingB2B

Integration

Integrated

CircuitManufacturing

Component

Validation

“Generic” Testing Infrastructure and Tool Development(e.g., XML, ebXML, schema quality, test case generation)

Semantic Web R&D

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Background

  • NIST B2B Interoperability Testbed

    • XML-based interoperability project with the automotive and aerospace industries

  • NIST AEX Testbed

    • XML-based interoperability project with the building construction industry

  • Product Data Exchange and Validation Testing activities

    • Data exchange-based integration project, not XML-based

  • Common characteristics

    • Specifications are segmented

    • Data exchange specifications evolve as integration projects proceed

  • Also true for standards development efforts

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Content Standards are Bridges

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We Need a Process for Building Interoperability Bridges

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Model Development Life Cycle

A guideline for building industrial strength data exchange bridges, that provides

  • Detailed analysis of the development process for content standards

  • Architecture for implementing that process

  • Outline of requirements for tools

  • Roadmap to the standards landscape

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Some Specific Problems in Model Development

  • Unbounded specification growth

  • Semantically duplicate terms, components, and documents are created

  • Poor documentation reduces reuse

  • Classic interoperability problems are revisited

  • Large-scale harmonization (using a common/canonical model) is hard to achieve

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Model Development Life Cycle


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Existing Schemas & Classification Scheme

Link

Annotations

Registry &

Repository

Implementation

External

Classification

Documentation

Ontologiess

Scheme

Requirement Gaps

Registry Entry

Model

Data

Model Discovery

Schema

Existing

Exchange

Registration

Semantics

Data

Requirements

Design

A1

A4

Rules

New

Specification

Specifications

Classification

Semantic Aware

Assistant

Lookup Assistant

Existing Schemas

Change Requests

Model Validation

Business

Forms

Table

A2

Of

Test Suites

Terms

Rule

Spread

Specification

Tools

Based

Specification

sheet

Engines

Reference

Data

Implementation

Business

Qualified

Context

Rules

Schemas

Guidelines

Discovered Schema

External

Model Piloting

Ontologies

Implementation

A3

Data

Model Integration

XSLT

Annotation

Schematron

Engine

Tools

Change

A5

Requests

Semantic

Semantic

Annotation

Similarity

Alignment

Tools

Measure

Algorithm

Decomposition of the Model Development Life Cycle


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Model Discovery


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Model Validation


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Model Piloting


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Model Registration


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Model Integration


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Overview of NIST Prototype Tools

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XML Schema Validation Tool

  • Objective: Ensure that schemas are compatible with a selected set of parsers

  • Core Functionality: Validate one or more schemas or schema extensions with multiple selected parsers and schema files stored in a repository

  • Status: Prototype

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Quality of Design Tool

  • Objective: Ensure that XML schemas conform to a selected set of design practices, e.g., use of common and valid terms, NDR conformance, use of the XML Schema structures that enhance reusability, maintainability, clarity, and interoperability

  • Core Functionality: A flexible environment for specifying and executing best practice rules against the schemas

  • Status: Beta – Available upon request. Contact Serm, [email protected]

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XML Schema Naming Assister

  • Objective: Ensure that type, element, and attribute names used in schemas are consistent within the schema and conform to ISO 11179 Naming Convention

  • Core Functionality: Decompose names into Object Class, Property, and Representation Term tokens, validate them using a table of terms, and suggest alternate names

  • Status: Prototype. Available at http://www.nist.gov/msid/Naming_Assister.html

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XML Instance Validation Tool

  • Objective: Ensure that schemas are compatible with a selected set of parsers, a set of sample data, a previous set of sample data (when the schemas have gone through changes)

  • Core Functionality: Automatically validate one or more instance files against associated schemas with multiple selected parsers (in batch mode)

  • Status: Prototype is available at http://www.nist.gov/msid/b2btestbed/semantic_checking.html

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Schematron Editor Tool

  • Objective: Assist a user in creating Schematron Rules

  • Core Functionality: Create Schematron with little or no knowledge of XPATH/XSLT syntax through expression wizards that allow drag-n-drop elements from an imported XML schema business document

  • Status: Prototype – available on Sourceforge site http://www.sf.net/projects/cs-wizard

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Semantic Aware Lookup Assistant

  • Objective: Assist the user when searching for a reusable business document or components that support data exchange requirements

  • Core Functionality: Match data exchange requirements from the user with existing schemas and provide quantitatively measured results

  • Status: Research has started

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Classification Assistant

  • Objective: Provide a quantitative measure suggesting a suitable classification to register a component within a classification scheme

  • Core Functionality: Given a data exchange specification (and documentation), proposed a ranked set of appropriate classification nodes

  • Status: Research has not started

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Semantic Alignment Tool

  • Objective: Provide quantitative analysis and suggestions for model harmonization

  • Core Functionality: Analyze a newly registered data exchange specification against existing ones for semantically duplicative and overlapping structures and suggest alternatives

  • Status: Research has not started

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Examples

  • Support model validation

  • XML Schema Validation tool

  • Schema Quality of Design tool

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Model Validation


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What is Schema Qualification?

Tests that a schema

  • Works with relevant tools

  • Consistently represents similar concepts

  • Uses constructs that enhance reusability, maintainability, clarity, and interoperability

  • Uses preexisting schemas correctly

  • Use terms/names correctly and consistently

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Example 1

Prototype Validation Service

  • Uploads an XML schema to test against the W3C standard for XML Schemas

  • Validates using multiple XML tools

  • Provides access to a repository of schemas which may be extended (e.g., Universal Business Language schemas)

DEMO

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Schema Quality of Design Testing Tool

  • Contains computer interpretable rules based on naming and design guidelines from a number of sources

  • Upload rules written in Schematron and JESS into rule-base

  • Execute rules against schema and report results

Example 2

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Application to Developing XML Schemas

QOD applied to grants.gov schemas resulted in several warnings including

  • Gobal elements declared in non-desirable places

  • Anonymous/local types defined in non-desirable places

  • The “Global” schema doesn’t declare a default namespace

  • Document/Transaction level schemas define multiple global elements

  • Non-determinism found

  • Redeclaration of elements and types (e.g. programType) in different namespaces

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Summary

  • MDLC is a recipe for building robust data exchange specifications

  • It drives development of tools and capabilities

    • Examples include Validation Service and Quality of Design tools

  • Maximizes reuse of tools to serve a diverse collection of customers

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Contacts

  • KC Morris – [email protected]

  • Serm Kulvatunyou – [email protected]

  • Josh Lubell – [email protected]

  • Puja Goyal – [email protected]

    References

  • Morris, KC , Kulvatunyou, Boonserm, Frechette, Simon , Lubell, Joshua , Goyal, P. , XML Schema Validation Process for CORE.GOV, NISTIR 7187, (2004)

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Summary of NIST Toolset


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Schema Quality of Design Testing Tool

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