Chapter 5 fighting disease
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Chapter 5 Fighting Disease. Section 1 Infectious Disease. Understanding Infectious Disease. When you have an infectious disease, pathogens have gotten inside your body and caused harm. Pathogen: Organisms that cause disease. Infectious Disease : Disease caused by the

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Chapter 5 Fighting Disease

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Chapter 5 Fighting Disease

Section 1 Infectious Disease


Understanding Infectious Disease

When you have an infectious disease,

pathogens have gotten inside your body and

caused harm.

Pathogen: Organisms that cause disease.

Infectious Disease: Disease caused by the

presence of a living thing within the body.


Understanding Infectious Disease

Famous People 1860’s – 1880’s

Joseph Lister: British Surgeon hypothesized that microorganisms caused infections.

(washed his hands and equipment, what a brilliant man)

Louis Pasteur: Showed that microorganisms cause certain kinds of diseases. Killing microorganisms can prevent disease.

Robert Koch: demonstrated that each infectious disease is caused by a specific kind of pathogen.


Kinds of Pathogens

There are 4 major groups of human pathogens.

Bacteria

Viruses

Fungi

Protists


Kinds of Pathogens

Bacteria: one-celled microorganisms, damage

Body cells directly, and indirectly through toxins.

Toxin: Poison, that attacks kills or damages cells.


Kinds of Pathogens


Kinds of Pathogens

Viruses: tiny particles, much smaller than bacteria. Cannot reproduce unless they are inside a living cell.

Colds and Flu are caused by viruses.

Over 200 kinds.

Meds don’t work, body must kill with immune system.


Kinds of Pathogens


Kinds of Pathogens

Fungi:

molds and yeast

grows in warm, dark, and moist areas.

Examples: athlete’s foot and ringworm.


Kinds of Pathogens


Kinds of Pathogens

Protists: eukaryotic organisms unicellular, and multicellular organisms, such as the protozoans, slime molds, brown algae, and red algae.

Examples:

Malaria

African Sleeping Sickness

Amebic Dysentery


Kinds of Pathogens


How Pathogens Are Spread

Pathogens can spread through contact with:

Infected person

Soil

Food

Water

Contaminated object

Infected animal


Chapter 5 Fighting Disease

Section 2 The Body’s Defenses


Barriers That Keep Pathogens Out

First line of Defense:

Surfaces of Skin

Breathing Passages

Mouth

Stomach

These barriers trap and kill most all pathogens

that try to enter the body.


Barriers That Keep Pathogens Out

Skin:

Chemicals in oil and sweat

Fall off with dead skin

Tightly lined skin cells

Normally enters through skin cuts


Skin


Barriers That Keep Pathogens Out

Breathing Passages:

Contain mucus and cilia

Sneeze and Cough


Breathing Passages


Barriers That Keep Pathogens Out

Mouth & Stomach:

Saliva contains destructive chemicals

Acid in stomach


Mouth & Stomach


Stomach


The Inflammatory Response

In the inflammatory response, fluid and white

blood cells leak from blood vessels into nearby

tissues. The white blood cells then fight the

pathogens.


The Inflammatory Response

White Blood Cells

Phagocyte: white blood cell that engulfs

pathogens and destroys them by breaking them

down.


White Blood Cell


White Blood Cell


The Inflammatory Response

Inflammation

Blood vessels widen

Bigger area faster response

Extra fluid, creates a swollen area


The Inflammatory Response

Fever

Chemicals produce fever

Increased temp restricts infections ability

to spread reproduce & grow.


Fever


The Immune System

The cells of the immune system can

distinguish between different kinds of

pathogens. The immune system cells

React to each kind of pathogen with a

defense targeted specifically at that

pathogen.


Immune System


The Immune System

T Cell

To identify pathogens and distinguish one

kind of pathogen form another.


T Cell


The Immune System

B Cell

Produces proteins that help destroy

pathogens.

Antibodies: are made for specific

antigens, marks them for death.


B Cell


AIDS

Disease caused by the virus, HIV.

HIV is the only kind of virus known to

attack the human immune system

directly and destroy T cells.


AIDS


Chapter 5 Fighting Disease

Section 3 Preventing Infectious Disease


Active Immunity

Immunity: The body’s ability to

Destroy pathogens before they can

cause disease.


Active Immunity

Active Immunity: Your own immune

system produces antibodies in

response to the presence of a pathogen.


Active Immunity

The Immune Response

T cells and B cells keep the “memory” of how to destroy pathogens that have all ready entered the body.

This response can last for life.


Active Immunity

Vaccination

The process by which harmless antigens are deliberately introduced into a person’s body to produce active immunity.

Vaccine: consists of pathogens that have been weakened or killed but can still trigger the immune system.


Vaccination


Active Immunity

When You Do Get Sick

Antibiotic: chemical that kills bacteria or slows their growth with out harming body cells.

Nothing you can take for a viral infection.


Antibiotic


Passive Immunity

Passive Immunity

A person acquires passive immunity when the antibodies that fight the pathogen come from a source other than the person’s body.


Chapter 5 Fighting Disease

Section 4 Noninfectious Disease


Noninfectious Disease

Diseases that are not caused by pathogens in the body.

Can not be transmitted from person to person.


Allergies

An allergy develops in response to various

foreign substances that set off a series of

reactions in the body.

Allergens: A substance that causes an

allergy.

Histamine: a chemical that is responsible

For the symptoms of an allergy, such as

Sneezing and watery eyes.


Allergy


Allergy


Allergens


Histamine


Allergies

Asthma:

A disorder in which the respiratory passages narrow significantly.

Can be brought on by stress and exercise.


Asthma


Diabetes

High levels of glucose in the blood and may even excrete glucose in the urine. The person’s body cells, however, do not have enough glucose.

Insulin: enables body cell to take in glucose from the blood and use it for energy.


Glucose


Insulin


Insulin


Effect of Diabetes

Short-Term Effects:

Weight loss

Feeling weak

Hungry all the time

Feeling thirsty

Long-term Effects:

Blindness

Kidney Failure

Heart Disease


Forms of Diabetes

Type I

Begins in childhood or early adulthood

Pancreas produces little or no insulin

Type II

Develops during adulthood

Pancreas does not make enough insulin, or body cells do not respond normally to insulin

Control through proper diet, and exercise.


Type I Diabetes


Type II Diabetes


Cancer

A disease in which cells multiply uncontrollably, over and over, destroying healthy tissue in the process.


Cancer

How Cancer Develops

Tumors: Cells dividing out of control, not all tumors are cancerous. Cancer cells break off and destroy healthy tissue.

Blood and Lymph vessels can carry cancer cells around the body for new tumors to form.


Tumors


Cancer

Causes of Cancer

Tumors: Cells dividing out of control, not all tumors are cancerous. Cancer cells break off and destroy healthy tissue.

Blood and Lymph vessels can carry cancer cells around the body for new tumors to form.


Cancer

Cancer Treatment

Surgery: Removal

Drugs: Use of chemicals to destroy cancer cells.

Radiation: High-energy waves to kill cancer cells, in specific spots.


Cancer

Cancer Prevention

Avoid Carcinogens

Low-Fat Diet

Regular Checkups… Catch it early


Chapter 5 Fighting Disease

Section 5 Cancer and the Environment


Linking Cancer to the Environment

First Studies

1700’s

Chimney Sweeps

Skin Cancer


Linking Cancer to the Environment

A Link Between Soot and Cancer

PercivallPott

Carcinogens in soot

Same stuff in in the tar of cigarette smoke


Linking Cancer to the Environment

Carcinogens in the Environment

The environment many contain carcinogens. To reduce the risk of cancer, carcinogens need to be removed or people need to be protected from them. (EPA)


Environmental Carcinogens Today

Ultraviolet Light

Skin Cancer

Ozone going away


Environmental Carcinogens Today

Vinyl Chloride

Colorless gas

PVC – plastic products

pipes, coating for wires, packaging, upholstery, house wares, car parts.

Liver, brain, lung cancer


Environmental Carcinogens Today

Arsenic

Naturally Occurs in soil and rock

Wood Preservative

(CCA) pressure treat

Liver, Bladder, Kidney, and Lung cancer


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