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Bacteriology. JEOPARDY. WEILL CORNELL MEDICAL COLLEGE - QATAR. An agent capable of causing disease only when a host’s defense is impaired. What is an opportunistic pathogen?. WEILL CORNELL MEDICAL COLLEGE - QATAR.

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bacteriology
Bacteriology

JEOPARDY

WEILL CORNELL

MEDICAL COLLEGE - QATAR

an agent capable of causing disease only when a host s defense is impaired

An agent capable of causing disease only when a host’s defense is impaired.

What is an opportunistic pathogen?

WEILL CORNELL

MEDICAL COLLEGE - QATAR

slide3

Protein A of Staphylococcus aureus has been used for the development of some immunological/diagnostic tests due to this property.

What is the binding of the Fc portion of immunoglobulin molecules?

WEILL CORNELL

MEDICAL COLLEGE - QATAR

what is yersinia pestis

A young boy in rural New Mexico is admitted to the hospital with high fever, greatly enlarged lymph nodes in the groin, vomiting, and malaise. His mother reports that within the past two hours he has developed severe respiratory congestion. Antimicrobial therapy was administered, but it was too late and the boy succumbed to overwhelming infection later that evening. Autopsy revealed infection with these bacteria.

What is Yersinia pestis?

WEILL CORNELL

MEDICAL COLLEGE - QATAR

the catarrhal stage the paroxysmal stage and the convalescent stage characterize this disease

The catarrhal stage, the paroxysmal stage and the convalescent stage characterize this disease.

What is whooping cough? or What is pertussis?

WEILL CORNELL

MEDICAL COLLEGE - QATAR

what is vancomycin

Resistance to this antibiotic first noted in some enterococci provoked widespread fear (now realized) of transfer of resistance to strains of S. aureus.

What is vancomycin?

WEILL CORNELL

MEDICAL COLLEGE - QATAR

greater than 90 of normal intestinal flora

Greater than 90% of normal intestinal flora.

What are obligate anaerobes? or What are anaerobes?

WEILL CORNELL

MEDICAL COLLEGE - QATAR

protein product produced by some bacteria that have a toxic effect on the host

Protein product produced by some bacteria that have a toxic effect on the host.

What is an exotoxin?

WEILL CORNELL

MEDICAL COLLEGE - QATAR

what is selective pressure

This genetic term describes the reason why there is a higher frequency of antibiotic resistant organisms found in the hospital environment than in the community environment.

What is selective pressure?

WEILL CORNELL

MEDICAL COLLEGE - QATAR

what is cystic fibrosis

Production of alginate capsule seems to be induced in the lung environment where infection in the lung with the organisms that make this capsule is the leading cause of death in patients with this underlying condition.

What is cystic fibrosis?

WEILL CORNELL

MEDICAL COLLEGE - QATAR

slide11

Food poisoning that is associated with rapid onset and rapid recovery and is more accurately an intoxication rather than an infection.

What is staphylococcal food poisoning?

WEILL CORNELL

MEDICAL COLLEGE - QATAR

what is streptococcus pyogenes or what is group a streptococcus

A 10-year-old child presents to her pediatrician with a fiery red throat, enlarged cervical lymph nodes and a fever. A rapid antigen detection test indicates that her pharyngitis is due to this common bacterial cause.

What is Streptococcus pyogenes? or What is Group A Streptococcus?

WEILL CORNELL

MEDICAL COLLEGE - QATAR

slide13

“Rice water” stools produced during infection with these bacteria reflect the non-invasive nature of the bacteria.

What is Vibrio cholerae?

WEILL CORNELL

MEDICAL COLLEGE - QATAR

this is the reason that mycoplasma pneumoniae are not susceptible to lactam antibiotics

This is the reason that Mycoplasma pneumoniae are not susceptible to -lactam antibiotics.

What is they have no cell wall?

WEILL CORNELL

MEDICAL COLLEGE - QATAR

what is antigenic variation or what is antigenic switching

Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Borrelia recurrentis, trypanosomes and some other organisms using this process accomplish evasion of the host’s immune system.

What is antigenic variation? or What is antigenic switching?

WEILL CORNELL

MEDICAL COLLEGE - QATAR

what is diphtheria

The “grayish pseudomembrane” that develops in the upper respiratory tract during development of this disease is due to the host’s inflammatory response and necrosis of epithelial cells as a result of the action of exotoxin produced by the bacteria.

What is diphtheria?

WEILL CORNELL

MEDICAL COLLEGE - QATAR

slide17

E. coli O157:H7 strains are associated with verotoxin production and hemorrhagic diarrhea. The O and H designation refers to this.

What are O antigens and flagellar antigens?

WEILL CORNELL

MEDICAL COLLEGE - QATAR

the most common opportunistic bacterial infection in the aids population in the united states

The most common opportunistic bacterial infection in the AIDS population in the United States.

What is Mycobacterium avium-intracellulare?

WEILL CORNELL

MEDICAL COLLEGE - QATAR

what is erythromycin

This drug was identified as effective against Legionella pneumophila soon after the 1976 epidemic prompted investigation. It remains the drug of choice today.

What is erythromycin?

WEILL CORNELL

MEDICAL COLLEGE - QATAR

what is administration of both tetanus antitoxin and immunization with tetanus toxoid

A 60-year-old man receives a puncture wound while working in his yard. After 24 hours, the wound is swollen and obviously infected. At his physician’s office, material from the wound is examined and large, Gram+ bacilli are seen. The man has received no immunizations of any kind for 40 years. This would be the appropriate therapy.

What is administration of both tetanus antitoxin and immunization with tetanus toxoid?

WEILL CORNELL

MEDICAL COLLEGE - QATAR

bacteria are catalase negative alpha hemolytic and optochin sensitive

Bacteria are catalase negative, alpha hemolytic and optochin sensitive.

What are Streptococcus pneumoniae?

WEILL CORNELL

MEDICAL COLLEGE - QATAR

infections usually abscesses with these general types of bacteria are always polymicrobic in origin

Infections (usually abscesses) with these general types of bacteria are always polymicrobic in origin.

What are anaerobes?

WEILL CORNELL

MEDICAL COLLEGE - QATAR

pneumonia associated mostly with adolescents and young adults in caused by these organisms

Pneumonia associated mostly with adolescents and young adults in caused by these organisms.

What are Mycoplasma pneumoniae?

WEILL CORNELL

MEDICAL COLLEGE - QATAR

in its urban cycle these bacteria were responsible for the black death

In its urban cycle, these bacteria were responsible for “The Black Death”

What are Yersinia pestis?

WEILL CORNELL

MEDICAL COLLEGE - QATAR

slide25

Virulence mechanism associated with capsule of Streptococcus pneumoniae and M protein of Streptococcus pyogenes.

What is inhibition of phagocytosis?

WEILL CORNELL

MEDICAL COLLEGE - QATAR

term given to the acquisition of toxigenicity simultaneous to acquisition of a temperate phage

Term given to the acquisition of toxigenicity simultaneous to acquisition of a temperate phage.

What is lysogenic conversion?

WEILL CORNELL

MEDICAL COLLEGE - QATAR

what is methicillin

MRSA have become increasingly common isolates from infections, especially those of nosocomial origin. The acronym (MRSA) reflects resistance to this and related drugs.

What is methicillin?

WEILL CORNELL

MEDICAL COLLEGE - QATAR

what are hemophilus influenzae

A young child is brought to her pediatrician for the third time in 3 weeks suffering from an ear infection that is apparently not responsive to the drugs employed. Streptococcus pneumoniae as a cause has been eliminated leaving these bacteria as the most likely agent of the infection.

What are Hemophilus influenzae?

WEILL CORNELL

MEDICAL COLLEGE - QATAR

what is endotoxin or what is lps or what is lipid a

Specific effects associated with this substance include release of IL-1, TNF and other cytokines; fever; hypotension; alternate pathway complement activation; and disseminated intravascular coagulation.

What is endotoxin? or What is LPS? or What is Lipid A?

WEILL CORNELL

MEDICAL COLLEGE - QATAR

what is delayed type hypersensitivity

A 75-year-old widower finally visits his doctor complaining of a chronic cough of several months’ duration. A sputum sample reveals acid fast bacilli. The symptoms exhibited are due primarily to this host reaction.

What is delayed type hypersensitivity?

WEILL CORNELL

MEDICAL COLLEGE - QATAR

this disease caused by bacteria is usually acquired from wild animal sources particularly rabbits

This disease caused by bacteria is usually acquired from wild animal sources, particularly rabbits.

What is tularemia?

WEILL CORNELL

MEDICAL COLLEGE - QATAR

what are amebas

Intracellular growth of the bacteria in alveolar macrophages in humans may be paralleled in the environment by intracellular growth in these protozoa.

What are amebas?

WEILL CORNELL

MEDICAL COLLEGE - QATAR

slide33

An elderly patient with an indwelling urinary catheter develops pyelonephritis. This bacterium is the most likely cause.

What is E. coli?

WEILL CORNELL

MEDICAL COLLEGE - QATAR

the cause of chancroid

The cause of chancroid.

What is Hemophilus ducreyi?

WEILL CORNELL

MEDICAL COLLEGE - QATAR

what is staphylococcus aureus

A severe epidemic of infection with this organism occurs in a hospital. In order to investigate the possibility of a common source, various isolates are tested for the pattern of lysis produced by a battery of bacteriophages.

What is Staphylococcus aureus?

WEILL CORNELL

MEDICAL COLLEGE - QATAR

what is rheumatic fever

Post-suppurative illness associated primarily with respiratory tract infections; the illness features cross-reacting antibodies to heart tissue.

What is rheumatic fever?

WEILL CORNELL

MEDICAL COLLEGE - QATAR

slide37

A young woman presents with her first bacterial urinary tract infection. This is the most likely agent.

What is E. coli?

WEILL CORNELL

MEDICAL COLLEGE - QATAR

what is helicobacter pylori

A middle-aged man visits his physician exhibiting all the signs of gastric ulcer disease. The doctor prescribes a course of several antibiotics to eliminate this organism from the gastric mucosa.

What is Helicobacter pylori?

WEILL CORNELL

MEDICAL COLLEGE - QATAR

slide39

Most important aspects of treatment are first surgical debridement of infected tissue along with administration of penicillin.

What is gas gangrene?

WEILL CORNELL

MEDICAL COLLEGE - QATAR

what is borrelia burgdorferi

A Manhattan mother brings her son to the pediatrician in August. He seems to have the flu and has developed a “bull’s eye” rash on his lower right leg. When asked, the mother confirms that during the summer they rent a house in the Hamptons on Eastern Long Island. The doctor immediately institutes tests to confirm his suspicions. This is the bacterium she suspects.

What is Borrelia burgdorferi?

WEILL CORNELL

MEDICAL COLLEGE - QATAR

less severe disease caused by the same bacteria that causes legionnaire s disease

Less severe disease caused by the same bacteria that causes Legionnaire’s disease.

What is Pontiac Fever?

WEILL CORNELL

MEDICAL COLLEGE - QATAR

what is coagulase

An elderly man develops pneumonia during his third week of hospitalization for another condition. Lung aspirates reveal Gram+ cocci that are catalase positive. Tests for this protein would confirm the diagnosis.

What is coagulase?

WEILL CORNELL

MEDICAL COLLEGE - QATAR

slide43

The ability of Neisseria gonorrhoeae strains to make a variety of pilin proteins at different times is an example of this phenomenon.

What is antigenic variation? or What is antigen switching?

WEILL CORNELL

MEDICAL COLLEGE - QATAR

slide44

Distinguishing characteristics include tumbling motility at room temperature and growth at refrigeration temperatures.

What is Listeria monocytogenes?

WEILL CORNELL

MEDICAL COLLEGE - QATAR

slide45

Protective antibody against Group A Streptococci is directed to this protein which is also the basis for a strain classification system.

What is M protein?

WEILL CORNELL

MEDICAL COLLEGE - QATAR

what is enterococcus

Originally classified in the genus Streptococcus, members of this genus were given a new name that reflects their common habitat and notes that, although similar, they have enough differences from other streptococci to be included in their own genus.

What is Enterococcus?

WEILL CORNELL

MEDICAL COLLEGE - QATAR

what is bacillary dysentery or what is shigellosis

An outbreak of this diarrheal illness occurred in a daycare center. Clinical descriptions included an initial onset of profuse, watery diarrhea followed later by less voluminous stools containing mucus and blood, indicating inflammation and invasion.

What is bacillary dysentery? Or What is shigellosis?

WEILL CORNELL

MEDICAL COLLEGE - QATAR

what is hemophilus influenzae type b

Conjugate vaccine against these bacteria is comprised of capsular antigen complexed to carrier proteins, either inactivated diphtheria toxin or N. meningitidis outer membrane proteins.

What is Hemophilus influenzae type b?

WEILL CORNELL

MEDICAL COLLEGE - QATAR

armadillos as well as humans may be natural hosts for these bacteria

Armadillos, as well as humans, may be natural hosts for these bacteria.

What is Mycobacterium leprae?

WEILL CORNELL

MEDICAL COLLEGE - QATAR

what is brucella

A “health food” nut purchases cheese made from unpasteurized milk obtained from cows fed only organically grown hay. Two weeks later he develops a flu-like illness with fever, weakness, and myalgias. The symptoms seem to follow a cyclic pattern with fever highest in late day. Culture reveals small, Gram negative coccobacilli from this genus of bacteria.

What is Brucella?

WEILL CORNELL

MEDICAL COLLEGE - QATAR

what is pseudomonas aeruginosa

A firefighter suffers severe burns while rescuing a family dog from a burning house. On the 6th day of hospitalization his wounds show signs of infection - on the 7th day there are pus exudates described as blue in color and sweet smelling. This bacterium is the most likely cause of the infection.

What is Pseudomonas aeruginosa?

WEILL CORNELL

MEDICAL COLLEGE - QATAR

non treponemal tests for syphilis detect cross reacting antibodies to this substance

Non-treponemal tests for syphilis detect cross-reacting antibodies to this substance.

What is cardiolipin?

WEILL CORNELL

MEDICAL COLLEGE - QATAR

found only in gram negative bacteria stimulates release of il1 tnf and other mediators by the host

Found only in Gram-negative bacteria - stimulates release of IL1, TNF and other mediators by the host.

What is endotoxin? or What is LPS? Or What is Lipid A?

WEILL CORNELL

MEDICAL COLLEGE - QATAR

differentiation from other members of the same genus is based on coagulase production

Differentiation from other members of the same genus is based on coagulase production.

What is Staphylococcus aureus?

WEILL CORNELL

MEDICAL COLLEGE - QATAR

three major causes of neonatal meningitis

Three major causes of neonatal meningitis.

What are Escherichia coli, Streptococcus agalactiae and Listeria monocytogenes?

WEILL CORNELL

MEDICAL COLLEGE - QATAR

slide56

Two bacterial species that produce independently evolved toxins that arrest protein synthesis in host cells by EF2 inactivation.

What are Corynebacterium diphtheriae and Pseudomonas aeruginosa?

WEILL CORNELL

MEDICAL COLLEGE - QATAR

what is streptokinase or what is fibrinolysin

The gene for this enzyme, a virulence factor for Group A Streptococcus, has been cloned and the protein product used in patients with coronary artery, pulmonary artery and venous disease.

What is streptokinase? or What is fibrinolysin?

WEILL CORNELL

MEDICAL COLLEGE - QATAR

what is the capsule of streptococcus pneumoniae or what is capsule

A 63-year-old woman is admitted to the hospital with neurologic signs consistent with meningitis. Examination of the CSF reveals numerous Gram+ cocci in pairs. Protective antibody is directed against this.

What is the capsule of Streptococcus pneumoniae? Or what is capsule?

WEILL CORNELL

MEDICAL COLLEGE - QATAR

swarming motility

Swarming motility.

What are bacteria of the genus Proteus?

WEILL CORNELL

MEDICAL COLLEGE - QATAR

in this organism toxin and lecithinase are synonymous

In this organism, -toxin and lecithinase are synonymous.

What is Clostridium perfringens?

WEILL CORNELL

MEDICAL COLLEGE - QATAR

what is hemophilus influenzae type b1

Once the most common cause of bacterial meningitis in young children, the development of an effective vaccine has dramatically decreased incidence.

What is Hemophilus influenzae type b?

WEILL CORNELL

MEDICAL COLLEGE - QATAR

waterhouse friderichsen syndrome is associated with these bacteria

Waterhouse-Friderichsen syndrome is associated with these bacteria.

What is Neisseria meningitidis?

WEILL CORNELL

MEDICAL COLLEGE - QATAR

the active component of endotoxin

The active component of endotoxin.

What is Lipid A?

WEILL CORNELL

MEDICAL COLLEGE - QATAR

slide64

Pneumovax protects against approximately this percentage of the known strains of Streptococcus pneumoniae.

What are about 30%?

WEILL CORNELL

MEDICAL COLLEGE - QATAR

what is mycobacterium tuberculosis

Drug therapy against infection with these bacteria is done in combination for extended time periods. First line choices include isoniazid and rifampin.

What is Mycobacterium tuberculosis?

WEILL CORNELL

MEDICAL COLLEGE - QATAR

in the united states flying squirrels appear to be an animal reservoir for these bacteria

In the United States, flying squirrels appear to be an animal reservoir for these bacteria.

What is Rickettsia prowazekii?

WEILL CORNELL

MEDICAL COLLEGE - QATAR

slide67

One of the virulence factors produced by Pseudomonas aeruginosa exhibits this mechanism of action, which is the same as diphtheria toxin.

What is exotoxin A?

WEILL CORNELL

MEDICAL COLLEGE - QATAR

what is undiagnosed chlamydia trachomatis

A young woman visits a local STD clinic and vaginal exudates reveal Gram negative diplococci. She is treated with ceftriaxone and doxycycline. The latter drug is for the treatment of these bacteria.

What is undiagnosed Chlamydia trachomatis?

WEILL CORNELL

MEDICAL COLLEGE - QATAR

production of catalase differentiates this group of gram cocci from the others

Production of catalase differentiates this group of Gram + cocci from the others.

What are staphylococci?

WEILL CORNELL

MEDICAL COLLEGE - QATAR

what are campylobacter species

Prior to the development of appropriate selective media the incidence of diarrheal illness due to these “sea gull” shaped bacteria was grossly underestimated.

What are Campylobacter species?

WEILL CORNELL

MEDICAL COLLEGE - QATAR

fried rice followed by diarrheal illness

Fried rice followed by diarrheal illness.

What is gastroenteritis caused by Bacillus cereus?

WEILL CORNELL

MEDICAL COLLEGE - QATAR

what is bordetella pertussis

Two types of vaccines against these bacteria are used clinically, a whole cell preparation and a subunit vaccine made up of an inactivated toxin or an inactivated toxin plus another cellular surface component.

What is Bordetella pertussis?

WEILL CORNELL

MEDICAL COLLEGE - QATAR

what is penicillin

A teenager is rushed to the emergency room with symptoms of meningitis. A spinal tap followed by a rapid latex agglutination test reveals organisms of the W-135 capsular type. Therapy with this antibiotic should begin immediately.

What is penicillin?

WEILL CORNELL

MEDICAL COLLEGE - QATAR

slide74

In several areas outside the United States, this live, attenuated bacterial vaccine is commonly employed.

What is Bacille Calmette-Geurin (BCG)?

WEILL CORNELL

MEDICAL COLLEGE - QATAR

rickettsia are obligate intracellular parasites they rely on host cells for this

Rickettsia are obligate intracellular parasites. They rely on host cells for this.

What is NAD?

WEILL CORNELL

MEDICAL COLLEGE - QATAR

chlamydia are obligate intracellular parasites they rely on host cells for this

Chlamydia are obligate intracellular parasites. They rely on host cells for this.

What is energy? or What is ATP?

WEILL CORNELL

MEDICAL COLLEGE - QATAR

slide77

Superantigens like TSST-1 bind these 2 cell surface molecules without need for antigenic specificity.

What are MHC and T-cell receptors?

WEILL CORNELL

MEDICAL COLLEGE - QATAR

what are pyrogenic exotoxin a or pyrogenic exotoxin b

A 38-year-old man cuts his finger while working in the kitchen. Two days later he develops an infection at the site of the cut. The finger soon swells and becomes very warm and the infection begins to rapidly spread up the man’s arm. He rushes to the emergency room and is diagnosed with necrotizing fasciitis. Strain of bacteria that cause this disease make one of these two exotoxins.

What are pyrogenic exotoxin A or pyrogenic exotoxin B?

WEILL CORNELL

MEDICAL COLLEGE - QATAR

what is streptococcus viridans

A 45-year old woman presents to her physician with complaints of increasing tiredness, low-grade fever and general weakness. Examination and tests reveals fever, anemia, an enlarged spleen and a heart murmur. History includes a childhood bout with rheumatic fever and an emergency dental visit six months ago. This is the most likely organism to cause the woman’s present condition.

What is Streptococcus viridans?

WEILL CORNELL

MEDICAL COLLEGE - QATAR

slide80

Antibiotic resistance genes are often encoded by these genetic elements, which helps in their rapid dissemination.

What are R plasmids? or What are plasmids?

WEILL CORNELL

MEDICAL COLLEGE - QATAR

diarrheal illness caused by this e coli group closely resembles cholera

Diarrheal illness caused by this E. coli group closely resembles cholera.

What are Enterotoxigenic E. coli (ETEC)?

WEILL CORNELL

MEDICAL COLLEGE - QATAR

cholera toxin adp ribosylates a g protein that controls production of this molecule

Cholera toxin ADP ribosylates a G protein that controls production of this molecule.

What is cAMP? or What is cyclic AMP?

WEILL CORNELL

MEDICAL COLLEGE - QATAR

what is bacillus anthracis

Among the reasons that these bacteria appear to be a major choice for the development of biological weapons are that they form spores, are aerobic and cause a rapidly fatal infection when inhaled in large numbers.

What is Bacillus anthracis?

WEILL CORNELL

MEDICAL COLLEGE - QATAR

only bacterial cause of acute epiglottitis

Only bacterial cause of acute epiglottitis.

What is Hemophilus influenzae type b?

WEILL CORNELL

MEDICAL COLLEGE - QATAR

slide85

Infection of endothelial cells and a rash that begins on the extremities and spreads inward characterize this disease.

What is Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever?

WEILL CORNELL

MEDICAL COLLEGE - QATAR

a positive ppd test indicates simply this

A positive ppd test indicates simply this.

What is prior exposure to Mycobacterium tuberculosis antigens?

WEILL CORNELL

MEDICAL COLLEGE - QATAR

slide87

This cause of a bacterial pneumonia is environmentally acquired and does not appear to be communicable.

What is Legionella pneumophila?

WEILL CORNELL

MEDICAL COLLEGE - QATAR

water soluble pigments and a fruity odor

Water soluble pigments and a fruity odor.

What is Pseudomonas aeruginosa?

WEILL CORNELL

MEDICAL COLLEGE - QATAR

what is penicillin1

Development of a chancre at the site of initial infection is followed weeks later by a characteristic rash. This treatment should be initiated immediately.

What is penicillin?

WEILL CORNELL

MEDICAL COLLEGE - QATAR

diphtheria toxoid for immunization is produced by treatment of culture filtrates with this chemical

Diphtheria toxoid for immunization is produced by treatment of culture filtrates with this chemical.

What is formalin? or What is formaldehyde?

WEILL CORNELL

MEDICAL COLLEGE - QATAR

rebecca lancefield s classification system divides this genus into several groups

Rebecca Lancefield’s classification system divides this genus into several groups.

What are the streptococci?

WEILL CORNELL

MEDICAL COLLEGE - QATAR

gram cocci that appear almost exclusively in pairs even when in chains

Gram+ cocci that appear almost exclusively in pairs even when in chains.

What is Streptococcus pneumoniae?

WEILL CORNELL

MEDICAL COLLEGE - QATAR

slide93

Plasmid encoded drug resistance is most often spread to other species via this gene exchange mechanism.

What is conjugation?

WEILL CORNELL

MEDICAL COLLEGE - QATAR

what is salmonella typhi

Initial ingestion of these bacteria is followed by invasion beyond the intestine, replication in macrophages, seeding of many organs including the intestine. Symptoms are due largely to endotoxin.

What is Salmonella typhi?

WEILL CORNELL

MEDICAL COLLEGE - QATAR

slide95

Production of these highly potent neurotoxins that block acetylcholine release is associated with lysogenic conversion.

What are botulinum toxins?

WEILL CORNELL

MEDICAL COLLEGE - QATAR

what is neisseria meningitidis

It is often not understood what underlies progression of asymptomatic infection of the upper respiratory tract with this organism to progress to severe bacteremia with possible extension to the CNS.

What is Neisseria meningitidis?

WEILL CORNELL

MEDICAL COLLEGE - QATAR

growth of members of this genus requires addition of factor x and or v to media

Growth of members of this genus requires addition of factor X and/or V to media.

What is Hemophilus?

WEILL CORNELL

MEDICAL COLLEGE - QATAR

penicillins developed for use against these bacteria include piperacillin and ticarcillin

Penicillins developed for use against these bacteria include piperacillin and ticarcillin.

What are Pseudomonas bacteria? or What is Pseudomonas aeruginosa?

WEILL CORNELL

MEDICAL COLLEGE - QATAR

elementary bodies and reticulate bodies represent developmental forms of these bacteria

Elementary bodies and reticulate bodies represent developmental forms of these bacteria.

What is Chlamydia trachomatis?

WEILL CORNELL

MEDICAL COLLEGE - QATAR

what is shigella and salmonella typhi

Intestinal infection by members of this genus and one species from another genus require very low infecting doses and in all cases the bacteria are strictly human pathogens.

What is Shigella and Salmonella typhi?

WEILL CORNELL

MEDICAL COLLEGE - QATAR

infection with this organism may have helped to make ivan the terrible so terrible

Infection with this organism may have helped to make Ivan the Terrible so terrible.

What is Treponema pallidum?

WEILL CORNELL

MEDICAL COLLEGE - QATAR

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