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Navigating the Standards Landscape. BJA Regional Information Sharing Conference November 28, 2006. Navigating the Standards Landscape. The Business Case: How do functional standards help the practitioner to develop an information sharing architecture?

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Navigating the Standards Landscape

BJA Regional Information Sharing Conference

November 28, 2006

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Navigating the Standards Landscape

  • The Business Case: How do functional standards help the practitioner to develop an information sharing architecture?

  • Data Exchange Standards: XML, JXDM and NIEM

  • JIEM, IEPDs and Components

  • Missouri Case Study

  • How Do I Connect the Silos? Here is the Help!

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The Business Case - Overview

  • Exploring the value of Standards

  • Why are standards beneficial ?

  • How are standards cost effective ?

  • Functional Standards: An example

  • What are they and how do they help me as a practitioner ?

  • Who decides what becomes a Standard ?

  • How are Standards designed and vetted ?

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The Business Case - Why

  • Standards are important if you want to:

    • SHARE DATA (speak the same language)

    • SAVE MONEY (use the same products)

    • LOWER RISK (increase the probability that your exchange will be interoperable with other justice entities throughout the nation)

    • INCREASE PUBLIC SAFETY (get it there faster, more accurately, in a consumable format)

    • INCREASE PUBLIC ACCESS (accurate information accessible through the web)

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The Business Case - What

  • Standards Provide

  • On-demand real time data access by practitioners who need it to make decisions

  • Standard products from vendors at lower cost

  • Leverage for your legacy system investment

  • Phased evolution to emerging technologies approach

  • If you care about PUBLIC SAFETY, standards are important because these standards can help you deliver emergency services more quickly, with greater dependability

  • If you care about ACCOUNTABILITY FOR THE PUBLIC’S MONEY, standards are important because they will help to significantly lower the lifecycle cost of sharing data

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Justice & Public Safety Standards Landscape

  • No Domain-wide standards prior to September 11, 2001

  • Each agency re-defined, and each vendor re-invented the wheel with every project

  • Evident and growing need to lower cost, reduce risk, speed delivery and ensure compatibility

  • 2004

    • Executive Order 13356 and

    • Homeland Security Presidential Directive (HSPD-5) to improve information sharing

    • 2005 Justice and Homeland Security partnership to develop National Information Exchange Model

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XML: Building Blocks for Information Exchange



Canonical Standard

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Data Exchange Standards: XML

  • XML provides a natural way to build new vocabularies or languages

  • XML tools (parsers, validators, native XML databases) are abundant, relatively inexpensive and can support any and every vocabulary that conforms to the XML standard

  • XML allows us to express information in the operating system/computer architecture/ language independent way

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Data Exchange Standards: XML

  • XML can represent all parts of the information exchange

    • Information that needs to be shared;

    • Information about this information (who created it, when, why, etc.);

    • Information about destination of this information (addressing, routing);

    • Security and authorization information (sensitivity level, who can read it, how it should be disposed of, etc.);

    • Validation and verification rules (XML schema, DTD, business rules)

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Role of the XML business vocabulary

  • Describing data objects relevant to the business problem in a consistent and re-usable format.

  • XML tags provide both human-readable descriptions and computer instructions for mapping and validation.

  • Two different organizations may express two different concepts with the same XML tag. Example:

    • <dmv:Person.identification> in the DMV environment could mean driver’s license. No further specialization is required.

    • <immigration:Person.identification> in the ICE environment could mean passport.

  • Business vocabularies should be reconciled for the purpose of the information exchange, creating a new vocabulary:

    • <infoEx:Person.identification idType = {driver’s license | passport}>

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XML Vocabularies

  • Uniform Business Language (UBL)

  • Electronic Business XML (ebXML)

  • Extensible Access Control Markup Language (XACML)

  • ACORD XML for Life Insurance

  • eXtensible Business Reporting Language (XBRL)

  • EDXL (OASIS Emergency Management)

  • Global Justice XML Data Model (G)JXDM)

  • National Information Exchange Model (NIEM)

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XML: Building blocks for information exchange

  • JXDM started as a “grass-roots” effort to define a common XML vocabulary for criminal justice and public safety

  • JXDM provides fairly large objects, reflecting the broad scope of the effort and attempts to accommodate needs of everyone across the wide spectrum

  • JXDM includes constructs not “native” to criminal justice, such as health or intelligence – created without a benefit of the subject matter expertise

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JXDM Evolution

Communities of Interest




Local, County,

and State


Data Dictionary



and RAP




Driver History



















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The National Information Exchange Model (NIEM)

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NIEM Goals and Objectives

  • Support and enable information sharing nationally, among all branches and levels of government

  • Extends the “grass roots”, bottom up approach used by the Justice community of interest

  • Synergy with the Federal Enterprise Architecture, especially the Data Reference Model (DRM)

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  • NIEM aggregates knowledge from multiple domains, where each “community of interest” (COI) maintains its own domain and contributes to the common set;

  • NIEM, having much broader audience in mind from the beginning, took a different approach than the JXDM to develop core objects:

    • Start with smallest, universally understood and usable;

    • Specialize for the particular exchanges, common to some or many;

    • Provide a space for additional specialization relevant to a specific area

  • Separating concepts into Universal, Common and domain-specific keeps NIEM objects generally smaller, more nimble, though the number of objects is larger than that in JXDM

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NIEM Data Component

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NIEM data component re-use and extension

Universal Person

Justice Person

Immigration Person

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National Information Exchange Model (NIEM)

NIEM Core (a collection of namespaces)

Core: jointly governed through the NIEM governing body


Universal namespace


The minimally supported set for all participating domains;universally understood; very stable; minimal or no subsetting

Common namespace

Requires joint governance and reconciliation; but relatively stable

Where tiger teams operate



  • NIEM Participants:

  • Bring domain content to NIEM.

  • Conform to NIEM NDR.

  • Agree to NIEM governance policies and procedures.

  • Participate in NIEM governance.


Emergency Mgt namespace


Immigration namespace

Governed by XSTF-like committees that coordinate and cooperate with the NIEM governing body

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JXDM 3.1 Vision

  • First major revision of JXDM

    • Implements associations and roles with metadata

    • Implements flexible metadata containers

    • Structures namespace

    • PropertyType and ActivityType completely refactored

    • No proxy schemas are used for code lists

    • External enumeration updates

      • NCIC: break some table dependencies (e.g., make/model)

    • New content

      • NHTSA crash data

      • Intelligence

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NIEM 1.0

  • Partitioned into multiple NIEM domains (including Justice)

  • Includes Universal, Common, and Structures namespaces (Core)

  • Re-factors data components across all namespaces

  • Implements

    • Associations

    • Roles

    • Metadata

    • Type augmentation

  • Implements a URI for each component

  • Re-factors some specialization occurrences into augmentation, associations, roles, and metadata

  • Uses original GJXDM 3.0.3 PropertyType and ActivityType

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NIEM 1.0

  • Content – (in addition to Justice):

    • Immigration and Customs Enforcement

    • Customs and Border Protection / International Trade

    • Intelligence

    • Emergency Management

    • Infrastructure Protection

    • Person Screening

    • External standards (Geospatial, EDXL)

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Requirements for JXDM 4.0/NIEM 1.1 release:

  • All proposed 4.0 functionality

  • NIEM Naming and Design Rules (NDR) compliance

  • Version independence

  • Lessons learned from NIEM 1.0 implementations

    • Commitment from NIEM PMO to support local and state pilots

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JXDM – NIEM Convergence

  • XSTF will continue to have governance oversight within the justice domain

  • XSTF and Global are participating in the NIEM governance structure

  • Convergence/Interlocking will occur with simultaneous 4.0/2.0 releases

    • “Interlocking” means:

      • NDRs and toolsets are consistent

      • IEPDs will be developed using both

      • The two data models are complementary and efficient (data is not duplicated) and allow seamlessinteroperability via toolsets

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NIEM 2.0 (2007)

NIEM 2.0 will converge GJXDM 3.0.3, JXDM 3.1, and NIEM 1.0 into one release with built-in migration support to subsequent NIEM releases.

GJXDM 3.0.3

NIEM 1.0

JXDM 3.1

NIEM 1.1

JXDM 4.0

NIEM 1.1 summary: Multi-domain, refactored PropertyType and ActivityType; associations, roles, metadata, type augmentation, flexible code lists, URI for each component, database export, and three integrated support tools

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JXDM – NIEM Convergence

  • Global has continued to focus on continuing the development of the NIEM in parallel to the JXDM

  • Global members have participated in NIEM governance, Con-ops, architecture, and outreach materials.

  • The XSTF will govern and manage the justice namespace, next release will be JXDM 4.0.

  • Justice domain will be renamed in NIEM to “jxdm”

  • Bottom Line: JXDM is alive and well – investments, to date, will be preserved

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NIEM IEPD Lifecycle

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Analyze Exchange Requirements

  • Mapping the business Process: The Justice Information Exchange Model (JIEM)

  • Conceptual framework for understanding, describing, and reengineering information exchange

  • Consists of five dimensions that identify exchanges

  • Each exchange is a unique combination of entries for each dimension, plus additional data

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How JIEM and SSGT interoperate

SSGT Mapping Tool


Schema Subset Generation Tool (SSGT)

Mapping Report





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JXDM Specifications and Service Models

  • Biometrics (ANSI-NIST ITL-2006)

  • FBI Electronic Fingerprint Transmission Specification (EFTS)

  • Uniform Rap Sheet

  • NCIC 2000

    • Sex Offender, Serious Violent Offender, Wants, Warrants, Hot Files Protection Orders

  • OASIS Court Filing 3.0

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Missouri Judicial Environment

  • Statutory project begun in 1995

  • Judiciary Information Architecture

  • Statewide Infrastructure Standards

  • Statewide case management system

  • Many other statewide technologies

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Missouri’s Participation in Standards Development

  • OASIS LegalXML Member Section

    • Electronic Court Case Filing

    • Specifications 3.01; 1.1; 1.0

    • Court Document Specification 1.1

  • Electronic Case Filing Functional and Technical Standards (National Center for State Courts)

  • Global Justice XML Data Model (U.S. Department of Justice)

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Missouri Example

  • Business Problem: Converting legacy case management information from a variety of proprietary disparate systems

  • Office of State Courts Administrator executive staff requested the development of a generic criminal/traffic conversion and a case transfer for Prosecuting Attorneys

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Background Information

  • Prior to implementing GJXDM, custom conversion programming was required for each legacy system:

    • Limited code reuse

    • On average 18-24 months development time

    • Serial development activity

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Successful Projects

  • Criminal Initial Filing

    • The transfer of criminal information from the local prosecutors to the court

  • City of St. Louis case conversion

    • 36 million records

    • 1.3 million cases

    • Less than 8 months versus 18-24 months

  • Clay and Jefferson Counties

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Future GJXDM Projects

  • E-Warrants

    • The transmission of warrant information to state and local law enforcement

  • E-Filing

    • Electronic transmission of civil case information from attorneys to the court

  • Drug Lab Results

    • Testing results for mandatory drug testing

    • from multiple contract labs

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Implementing Advantages

  • Reusable components

    • Future projects can benefit

  • Improved communication between information provider and project team

  • Reduce overall project delivery time

    • Conversions are now averaging 6 to 9 months

  • Reduce overall project costs

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Levels of Standards

  • Choose the level of standard applicable to the exchange

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Court Data


Justice XML Data Dictionary

Court Filing

Arrest Warrant

Court Document



Incident Report

JXDM Building Blocks

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Standards for Courts

  • Consolidated Case Management System Functional Standards

    • JTC of COSCA and NACM

  • Civil Case Management Functional Requirements

  • Domestic Relations Case Management Functional Requirements

  • Criminal Case Management Functional Requirements

    • BJA

  • Juvenile Case Management Functional Requirements

    • OJJDP

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Standards for Courts available via NCSC

  • Traffic Functional Requirements

    • NHTSA

  • Electronic Filing Processes (Technical and Business Approaches)

    • SJI

  • LegalXML Member Section XML Court Document

    • JTC of COSCA and NACM

  • Electronic Court Filing XML Standard

    • JTC of COSCA and NACM

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OASIS Electronic Filing 3.01 Specification

  • Began in 1999; First Specification in 2002; Latest revision August 2006

  • Scope expanded in latest version

  • Components currently include:

    • Bankruptcy

    • Civil filing

    • Criminal filing

    • Court policy

    • Domestic filing

    • Service information

    • Queries

    • Docket information

    • Traffic citation

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How Do I Connect the Silos? Resources !

Available today

  • OJP and NIEM web sites


  • JXDM - NIEM Spreadsheets

  • NCSC Wayfarer Search Tool

  • Schema Subset Generation Tools

  • Unified Modeling Language Tools

  • JXDM and NIEM National Virtual Help Desk

  • GTTAC Technical Assistance and Training

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OJP Information Site

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NIEM Information Site

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  • XML Structure Task Force (XSTF)

  • Global Training and Technical Assistance Committee (GTTAC)

  • IJIS Institute XML Committee

  • Technical Assistance and Training

  • (G) JXDM User Guide

  • Sponsor 1st Annual (G) JXDM User Conference

  • Lead developer of Reference Information Exchange Package Documentation (IEPDs)

  • JXDM National Virtual Help Desk support

  • Global and NIEM committees

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SEARCH 2006 - 2007 Focus

  • JIEM-IEPD Tool Development

  • IEPDs, horizontal analysis of components

  • Reusable component library

  • Reference Models

  • Expanded domains (emergency management, incident command, intelligence and fusion)

  • Privacy

  • Service Oriented Architecture

  • Messaging/Transport

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Thank you!

  • Catherine Plummer

  • SEARCH, The National Consortium for Justice Information and Statistics

  • 916-392-2550 x 301

  • [email protected]

    Robin Gibson, PMP

    Manager-Court Automation Fiscal and Planning Office of State Courts Administrator


    [email protected]

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