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Warm Up. Describe the Law of Superpostition . . http://rapguidetoevolution.co.uk/i%e2%80%99m-a-african#comments. What do you think each of the following mean? Fossil Comparative anatomy Comparative embryology Comparative biochemistry Geographic distribution. Fossil .

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Warm up

Warm Up

Describe the Law of Superpostition.

http://rapguidetoevolution.co.uk/i%e2%80%99m-a-african#comments


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  • What do you think each of the following mean?

  • Fossil

  • Comparative anatomy

  • Comparative embryology

  • Comparative biochemistry

  • Geographic distribution


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  • Fossil

preserved remains or traces of animals,plants, and other organisms


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  • Comparative anatomy

Study of similarities and differences in the anatomy of different organisms


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  • Comparative embryology

Compares and contrasts embryos of different species


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  • Comparative biochemistry

structure, composition, and chemical reactions of substances in living systems.


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  • Geographic distribution

Distribution of Plants and animals


Evidence of evolution

Evidence of Evolution

  • Fossil

  • Comparative anatomy

  • Comparative embryology

  • Comparative biochemistry

  • Geographic distribution


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Evolution

Evidence of Evolution

Fossils

  • Fossils provide a record of species that lived long ago.

  • Fossils show that ancient species share similarities with species that now live on Earth.

Armadillo

Glyptodont


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Evolution

Two classes of traits

  • Derived traits

    • newly evolved features

      • Feathers

        • do not appear in the fossils of common ancestors.

  • Ancestral traits

    • primitive features

      • Teeth

        • appear in ancestral forms.


Comparative anatomy

Comparative Anatomy

  • Anatomically similar structures inherited from a common ancestor are called homologous structures.


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  • Analogous structures

    • same appearance, structure or function

    • evolved separately

    • do not share common ancestor.

  • Homologous structures

    • Similar structures

    • Share common ancestor


Homologous or analogous

Homologous or Analogous


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Evolution

Evidence of Evolution

  • Analogous structures

  • Show that functionally similar features can evolve independently in similar environments


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Evolution

  • Evolutionary theory

predicts that features of ancestors that no

longer have a function for that species will

become smaller over time until they are lost.

Evidence of Evolution

Vestigial Structures

  • reduced forms of functional structures in other organisms.


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Evolution

  • Evolutionary theory

predicts that features of ancestors that no

longer have a function for that species will

become smaller over time until they are lost.

Evidence of Evolution

Vestigial Structures

  • reduced forms of functional structures in other organisms.


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Evolution

  • Evolutionary theory

predicts that features of ancestors that no

longer have a function for that species will

become smaller over time until they are lost.

Evidence of Evolution

Vestigial Structures

  • reduced forms of functional structures in other organisms.


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Evolution

Evidence of Evolution

Comparative Embryology

  • Vertebrate embryos exhibit homologous structures during certain phases of development but become totally different structures in the adult forms.


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Evolution

Comparative Biochemistry

  • Many different organisms share metabolic molecules

  • Common ancestry


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Evolution

Chapter 15

15.2 Evidence of Evolution

  • Comparisons of the similarities in these molecules across species support the evolutionary patterns seen in comparative anatomy and in the fossil record.

  • Organisms with closely related morphological features have more closely related molecular features.


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Geographic Distribution

  • The distribution of plants and animals

  • Evolution is intimately linked with climate and geological forces.

Rabbit

Mara


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Evolution

Types of Adaptation

  • Adaptation

    • trait increases an organism’s reproductive success.

Mimicry

California kingsnake

Camouflage

Western

coral snake


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Evolution

  • Fitness is a measure of the relative contribution an individual trait makes to the next generation.

  • Traits with higher fitness become more common.

Name the independent and dependent variables?

dependent variable

Independent variable


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Evolution

Chapter 15

Chapter Diagnostic Questions

Identify the term that is used to describe

anatomically similar structures inherited from

a common ancestor.

ancestral traits

analogous structures

homologous structures

vestigial structures


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Evolution

Chapter 15

Chapter Diagnostic Questions

Which is not a vestigial structure?

snake pelvis

porpoise flipper

human appendix


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Evolution

Chapter 15

15.2 Formative Questions

Which is an example of a derived trait?

a tail

bones

feathers

teeth


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Evolution

Chapter 15

15.2 Formative Questions

Which features are similar in use and evolve in

similar environments, but do not evolve from a

common ancestor?

analogous structures

embryological structures

homologous structures

vestigial structures


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Evolution

Chapter 15

15.2 Formative Questions

True or False

Organisms with similar anatomy share

similar DNA sequences.


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Evolution

Chapter 15

15.2 Formative Questions

At the heart of the theory of evolution by natural

selection lies the concept of __________.

adaptation

biogeography

gradualism

speciation


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Evolution

Chapter 15

Chapter Assessment Questions

Determine which morphological adaptation the

monarch butterfly exhibits.

camouflage

mimicry

embryological adaptation

vestigial structure


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Evolution

Each forelimb is a similar modification derived

from a different ancestor.

Natural selection has produced similar

modifications in the forelimb.

Chapter 15

Standardized Test Practice

Which is the best explanation for the similarities in

the construction of these forelimbs?


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Evolution

They are functionally similar features that have

evolved independently.

They are modifications of the forelimbs of a

common ancestor.

Chapter 15

Standardized Test Practice

Which is the best explanation for the similarities in

the construction of these forelimbs?


Closing quiz

Closing Quiz

Contrast ancestral and derived traits.


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