5. Tracheophytes
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5. Tracheophytes b. Groups i. Lycopodiophytes ii. Monilophytes iii. Gymnosperms iv. Angiosperms - characteristics PowerPoint PPT Presentation


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5. Tracheophytes b. Groups i. Lycopodiophytes ii. Monilophytes iii. Gymnosperms iv. Angiosperms - characteristics. Flower: leaf-like whorls fulfill different functions. Collectively, the ancestral adaptive value was to attract animal pollinators. .

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5. Tracheophytes b. Groups i. Lycopodiophytes ii. Monilophytes iii. Gymnosperms iv. Angiosperms - characteristics

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5. Tracheophytes

b. Groups

i. Lycopodiophytes

ii. Monilophytes

iii. Gymnosperms

iv. Angiosperms

- characteristics

Flower: leaf-like whorls fulfill different functions. Collectively, the ancestral adaptive value was to attract animal pollinators.

http://kvhs.nbed.nb.ca/gallant/biology/biology.html


Pollinators forage non-randomly, and they can learn. So, by bribing pollinators with nectar, and advertising the location with large colorful petals, pollinators learn to visit flowers for food – and they “trapline”, going from flower to flower.

Pollen transport is much more efficient than wind dispersal; less pollen is needed (but there are additional costs of flower ad nectar production.


Flowers can evolve to limit pollination to a particular type (or even species) of pollinator.

Flies are attracted to flowers that smell like carrion.

This increases the chance that the NEXT flower the pollinator visits will be a member of the same plant species.

Hummingbirds are attracted to red tubular flowers, where the nectar is too deep for most insects to reach


Flowers can evolve to limit pollination to a particular type (or even species) of pollinator.

Butterfly flowers offer a place to stand and probe many flowers from one place

Many bat flowers are large, to receive the head of the bat. White is common for these flowers that open at night.


Flowers can evolve to limit pollination to a particular type (or even species) of pollinator.

Orchids are one of the most derived groups of plants, and they show the most specialized flowers


In some flowering plants, the flowers have become very reduced – they no longer attract pollinators – the plants have returned to a wind-pollinated lifestyle.

Oak flowers

Ragweed flowers


5. Tracheophytes

b. Groups

i. Lycopodiophytes

ii. Monilophytes

iii. Gymnosperms

iv. Angiosperms

- characteristics

Fruit: modification to ovary tissue (typically) to attract animals to consume fruit and disperse seeds.

http://technabob.com/blog/2008/03/07/edible-apple-logo-reminds-me-of-the-fruit-salad-days/

http://sharon-taxonomy2010-p2.wikispaces.com/Angiosperms


Plants with dry, wind dispersed seeds are more common in fields, or in canopy trees. Fleshy fruits dispersed by animals are more common in forest understory and forest edges, where animals are more common.


5. Tracheophytes

b. Groups

i. Lycopodiophytes

ii. Monilophytes

iii. Gymnosperms

iv. Angiosperms

- characteristics

- life cycle

http://bioweb.uwlax.edu/bio203/s2009/herman_jaci/Reproduction.htm


Double Fertilization

http://www.tutorvista.com/biology/fertilisation-in-plants


5. Tracheophytes

b. Groups

i. Lycopodiophytes

ii. Monilophytes

iii. Gymnosperms

iv. Angiosperms

- characteristics

- life cycle

- evolutionary history


5. Tracheophytes

b. Groups

i. Lycopodiophytes

ii. Monilophytes

iii. Gymnosperms

iv. Angiosperms

- characteristics

- life cycle

- diversity (90% of plant species)

http://www.flickr.com/photos/colbugspotter/3373136155/

http://www.hiltonpond.org/ThisWeek040622.html

http://www.humanflowerproject.com/index.php/weblog/2006/01/P8/

http://thebathduck.wordpress.com/category/garden/


5. Tracheophytes

b. Groups

i. Lycopodiophytes

ii. Monilophytes

iii. Gymnosperms

iv. Angiosperms

- characteristics

- life cycle

- diversity

(90% of plant species)


Amborella– the most primitive flowering plant, of New Caledonia

Nymphaea – water lilies

Magnoliids - ~9000 sp of Magnolias, Laurels, Black Pepper, Nutmeg…


Monocots– ~60,000 species of grasses, grains, palms, bamboos, lilies, irises, orchids, tulips, etc.


Eudicots – over 200,000 species! From vegetables to roses, trees (that aren’t gymnosperms, palms or Magnolias), asters, etc.


5. Tracheophytes

6. Summary

Algae – aquatic

non-tracheophytes: cuticle

Lycopodiophytes: vascular tissue and dominance of the sporophyte (tall)

Monilophytes: true leaves

Gymnosperms: Seeds and pollen

Angiosperms: Flowers and fruit


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