Historical linguistics. Language classification and change. Classification. Genetic Typological Areal. A very important discovery. Jones  described Sanskrit:
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Sanskrit has a wonderful structure; more perfect than the Greek, more copious than the Latin, and more exquisitely refined than either, yet bearing to both of them a stronger affinity … than could possibly have been produced by accident.
“Family trees”: linguists love trees!
The world has many (how many?) languages
They can be traced back to a small number of families
Which families do English and Chinese belong to?
The word “family” is used to describe different levels, so it is vague
The highest level node can also be referred to as the Proto-language, for example PIE
Words from the same root
Maternal and madreboth come from mater
(which 3 languages, please?)
Yule 184-187 show how linguists can rebuild PIE and other proto-languages
Read “Word Reconstruction” carefully
Understand the example
Do study question 3, including the reasons
Change in grammar and vocabulary
Read about Syntactic changes and Semantic changes
Try Research Task D
6 possible types
Pro-drop vs non-pro-drop
Can you remember this? What is Chinese?
Accusative (Japanese, Latin) vs ergative (Basque) (from wikipedia.org) (Japanese? German?)
There is no genetic relationship between languages, but they still share features, and they are spoken in the same region
Balkan linguistic union
Albanian, Greek, Bulgarian and Romanian are all IE languages
However, they are not closely related
And yet they share certain grammatical features (case, tense etc.)
East Asian sprachbund
Chinese, Japanese, Korean, Vietnamese, Thai and others are probably unrelated genetically (like Chinese & English, also unrelated)
Various shared features
你的衣服,怎么这么脏? (wiki again)
Politeness (changing in Chinese)
Lots of languages borrow extensively from English
You can probably think of many words in Chinese… how about the other way round?
This is not really part of language classification though