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UNIT 2 : VALUES , PUBLIC INTERESTS AND POLITICS IN PLANNING. Values and Norms in Planning. What are Values?

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values and norms in planning
Values and Norms in Planning

What are Values?

  • Values are broad ideas and beliefs that define what is proper or improper, or what is good or bad, in a given society or among members of a group; they serve as principles that govern behaviour.
  • Examples of Values:
    • Respect for authority is a common value; holiness is a religious value; patriotism, kindness and respect for the sanctity of life are important values in many societies.

UNIT 2: VALUES, PUBLIC INTERESTS, POLITICS

values and norms in planning1
Values and Norms in Planning

What are Values?

  • Values are culture-based: through the process of socialization (or acculturation) individuals derive their values from the culture to which they belong (or with which they are associated).
  • Because values are culture-based, they tend to differ from culture to culture
  • Because culture is dynamic, values may change (go through transformation) over time

UNIT 2: VALUES, PUBLIC INTERESTS, POLITICS

values and norms in planning2
Values and Norms in Planning

What about Norms?

  • Specific prescriptions of good behaviour that individuals are expected to put up in order to conform with the values of a society or group. They are the ‘dos’ and the ‘don’ts’ of that society or group.
  • In other words, norms are the visible manifestations of values

UNIT 2: VALUES, PUBLIC INTERESTS, POLITICS

values and norms in planning3
Values and Norms in Planning

What about Norms?

  • Example:
    • Respect for authority (as a value) may be manifested by such routine behaviour as:
      • subjects bowing before their chief
      • children offering their seats to adults
      • students standing up when a teacher enters a classroom, etc

UNIT 2: VALUES, PUBLIC INTERESTS, POLITICS

values and norms in planning4
Values and Norms in Planning

What about Norms?

  • Norms usually go with sanctions, which can be positive or negative
  • Good behaviour attracts reward, praise or commendation (positive sanctions) while bad behaviour attracts punishment (negative sanction)

Why should planners be concerned about values and norms?

UNIT 2: VALUES, PUBLIC INTERESTS, POLITICS

public interests ideologies and politics
Public Interests, Ideologies and Politics

What is Public Interest?

  • ..“considerations affecting the good order and functioning of the community and government affairs, for the well-being of citizens.”
  • Also known as the ‘Common Good’ or ‘Public Purpose’
  • Often no unanimously agreed public interest or purpose regarding issues addressed in planning

UNIT 2: VALUES, PUBLIC INTERESTS, POLITICS

public interests ideologies and politics1
Public Interests, Ideologies and Politics

What is Public Interest?

  • Reality:
    • Several interests co-exist, some of which conflict
    • Planners have to deal with several Interest Groups who do not necessarily agree on what goals to pursue or how to achieve them.

UNIT 2: VALUES, PUBLIC INTERESTS, POLITICS

public interests ideologies and politics2
Public Interests, Ideologies and Politics

How do Values, Ideologies and Politics Influence the Idea of ‘Public Interest’ in Public-Sector Planning?

  • Effects of Values:
    • What constitutes Public Interest reflect the values of the community for which planning is carried out.

UNIT 2: VALUES, PUBLIC INTERESTS, POLITICS

public interests ideologies and politics3
Public Interests, Ideologies and Politics

How do Values, Ideologies and Politics Influence the Idea of ‘Public Interest’ in Public-Sector Planning?

  • Effects of Ideologies and Politics:
    • Planning is a political decision-making process; therefore determination of Public Interest tends to be influenced by the dominant political ideology of the day.
    • E.g. Left-Leaning Right-Leaning

UNIT 2: VALUES, PUBLIC INTERESTS, POLITICS

public interests ideologies and politics4
Public Interests, Ideologies and Politics

How do Values, Ideologies and Politics Influence the Idea of ‘Public Interest’ in Public-Sector Planning?

  • Defining the Public Interest can also be influenced by the private ‘electoral interests’ of politicians who are at the helm of decision-making

UNIT 2: VALUES, PUBLIC INTERESTS, POLITICS

public interests ideologies and politics5
Public Interests, Ideologies and Politics

So, in reality, is there a single Public Interest in Planning?

  • The existence of several ‘publics’ (interest groups) with divergent interests within the bigger public
    • E.g. the poor, businesses, politicians, environmentalists, planners themselves, property owners, traditional rulers, etc.
  • The real challenge for planners is how to reconcile these divergent interests

UNIT 2: VALUES, PUBLIC INTERESTS, POLITICS

the role of the planner
The Role of the Planner

Does the Professional Planner have a Single Role to Play as far as Public-Sector Planning is Concerned?

  • The modern-day planner wears several caps. He is:
    • A technician (technocrat)
    • An advisor
    • A facilitator
    • A negotiator
    • An advocate
    • Etc

UNIT 2: VALUES, PUBLIC INTERESTS, POLITICS

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