Cortical Organization & Introduction to the EEG. Dr Taha Sadig Ahmed , Physiology Department. Cortical Organization.
Dr Taha Sadig Ahmed ,
( i.e., intracortical connections ) .
(i) basal ganglia,
(ii) brainstem and
(iii) spinal cord
(A) Thalamic Sensory Relay Nuclei ,
(1) Specific Sensory Nuclei , &
(2) Non-specific Sensory Nuclei .
(B) Thalamic Nuclei mainly concerned with motor control
( proprioception ) to the postcentral gyrus .
Medial Geniculate Bodies (Hearing )
Ventrobasal Nuclei ( Somatic Sensations )
Intralaminar & Midline Nuclei RAS
Somatomotor :Receive inputs from BG & Cerebellum
Project to M1
Project to Limbic Cortex
Limbic (Anterior Thalamic Nuclei ): Receive inputs from Mamillary Bodies
Thus , there are two ascending sensory systems : (1) Specific Sensory System , & (2) Non-Specific Sensory System
(1) Brainstem Tegmentum ( brainstem core ) , &
(2) Thalamic reticular nuclei .
(1) Ascending RAS : that connects to areas in theThalamus , Hypothalamus and Cerebral Cortex , &
(2) Descending RAS : connects to the Cerebellum and Sensory Nerves and Pathways.
the Somatosensory ascending tracts ,
Trigeminal afferents, and
visual and auditory afferents
(1) Low Blood Glucose Level ( Hypoglycemia )
(2) low body temperature ( Hypothermia ) ,
(3) Low Level of Adrenal Glucocorticoids , and
(4) High Arterial CO2 (PaCO2).
(A) Intracortical oscillations : within the cortex itself , and
(B) Oscillations in feedback circuits between the thalamus and cortex .
( soma ) is that of a constantly shifting dipole .