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12.10 Warm-Up. Title 2 new pages “Soil Warm-Ups” Create a KWL chart on Weathering Take out “Life of a Rock Comic Strip” and rubric (1/2 sheet) -10 points if not turned in yesterday`. Erosion and Weathering. Effects of Erosion. Title page “Effects of Erosion”

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12.10 Warm-Up

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12 10 warm up

12.10 Warm-Up

  • Title 2 new pages “Soil Warm-Ups”

  • Create a KWL chart on Weathering

  • Take out “Life of a Rock Comic Strip” and rubric (1/2 sheet)

    • -10 points if not turned in yesterday`

Erosion and weathering

Erosion and Weathering

Effects of erosion

Effects of Erosion

  • Title page “Effects of Erosion”

  • For each before and after picture, write your observations of what has changed and your hypothesis (what caused it to change).

Solve the mystery of the great sphinx of giza

Solve the Mystery of theGreat Sphinx of Giza:

  • Observation: What is different about the Ancient Egyptian Sphinx in the two images?

  • Hypothesis: What do you think caused this difference?

12 10 warm up



Great Sphinx



Sphinx mystery uncovered

Sphinx Mystery Uncovered:

  • The head was made up of a harder strata—so it avoided a lot of weathering. (its nose was taken off by soldiers in the 18th century.

  • The body was made out of softer limestone (what kind or rock is this?

  • Some weathering by wind and sand and dust has occurred.

  • However, it is believed that flooding from the Nile River led to extreme water erosion.

12 10 warm up


Solve the mystery of the grand canyon

Solve the Mystery of The Grand Canyon:

  • Observation: What is different about the Grand Canyon in the two images?

  • Hypothesis: What do you think caused this difference?

12 10 warm up


Grand Canyon




Grand canyon mystery uncovered

Grand Canyon Mystery Uncovered:

  • Carved out (eroded) by the Colorado River over the past 17 million years.

12 10 warm up


Solve the mystery of the statue of liberty

Solve the mystery of the Statue of Liberty

  • Observation: What is different about the Statue of Liberty in the two images?

  • Hypothesis: What do you think caused this difference?

12 10 warm up

Statue of Liberty





Statue of liberty mystery uncovered

Statue of Liberty Mystery Uncovered:

  • The statue of liberty is made of copper (like a penny) over time it is being oxidized by water and air– a form of chemical weathering—making it green instead of silver.

Solve the mystery of the landscape

Solve the mystery of the landscape:

  • Observation: What is different about the landscape in the two images?

  • Hypothesis: What do you think caused this difference?

12 10 warm up






Landscape mystery uncovered

Landscape Mystery Uncovered:

  • Glaciers carve through plateaus, mountains and land easily, causing weathering and erosion

Sandcastle observation hypothesis





Castle mystery uncovered

Castle Mystery Uncovered:

  • The largest “active”/ “living” Sand Dune on the East Coast—Jockey’s Ridge North Carolina

  • The amount of sand making up the 420 acres of Jockey's Ridge is equal to about 6,000,000 dump truck loads!

  • The Sand is mostly quartz rock which came from the mountains millions of years ago.—what kind of rock is quartz rock?

Castle mystery uncovered1

Castle Mystery Uncovered:

  • Each year winds from each directions erode the Dune, picking up sand and moving.

  • Over time the Dune moved so much it covered an old Put-put coarse—which the castle was part of.

  • Over more time the Dune moved so much that it is uncovering the Put-put coarse and unveiling a weathered/eroded castle—wind and sand weathering.

Share what do you think

Share:What do you think?

  • http://www.brainpop.com/science/earthsystem/erosion/

  • http://www.brainpop.com/science/weather/weathering/

Let’s see, watch and learn:

12 10 warm up


Erosion is the natural moving of material from one place to another.

2. Mountain rivers can form V-shaped rivers and canyons.

3. It takes a river millions of years to create a valley or canyon.

12 10 warm up

  • We can see from the examples, dirt and soil can be eroded and change landscapes. What typically needs to happen to the rock before it is eroded?

    • It needs to be weathered!

Weathering cornell notes

Weathering Cornell Notes

12 10 warm up

Mechanical Weathering

Mechanical— when a rock is broken into smaller pieces —doesn’t change the chemical composition of the rock


-- Grand Canyon, carved out by the Colorado River—no change of the rock just denting the rock or changing its shape

-- Sphinx of Giza—sand and water both chipped away at the Sphinx changing its shape but not what it was made of.

Think of sand paper or breaking/cracking something!

Types of mechanical weathering

Types of Mechanical Weathering

  • Abrasion: When rocks move (erode), they collide with each other and break apart

  • Expansion and Contraction: Heating and cooling causes rock to swell and shrink and crack

  • Frost action: Water fills cracks, and then expands when it freezes

  • Plants and animals: Plants wedge in rocks, animals tunnel and dig

12 10 warm up

Chemical Weathering

Chemical--when a rock is broken down through a chemical change


--Statue of Liberty, tarnished/ rusted by the air and water exposure and turned green

--Rusting of a bicycle

-- Acid Rain can erode statues, gravestones etc.

Think of changing the entire rock!

Types of chemical weathering

Types of Chemical Weathering

  • Hydrolysis: Hydrogen in water reacts with minerals, creating new compound

  • Carbonation: Acid in water causes the rock to dissolve

  • Oxidation: The chemical reaction of oxygen with other substances (rust)

Weathering worksheet

Weathering Worksheet

  • Identify each statement as mechanical or chemical weathering

  • Compl

12 11 warm up on soil warm up page

12.11 Warm-Up (on soil warm-up page)

  • Chemical weathering is different than mechanical weathering because it

    • Breaks down rock

    • Moves rock from place to place

    • Changes the composition of rock

    • Makes new landforms

  •  Write claim and evidence.

  • Take out both sheets of homework (versatiles and half sheet)

12 10 warm up



How is soil created

How is soil created?

It takes 100 – 1,000 yrs to form 1” of soil.

How is soil created1

How is soil created?

1. Exposed rock (“bedrock”) starts to be weathered.

2. Wind, moving water, changes in temperature continue the weathering and erosion process.

3. Broken pieces get broken down further and further

It takes 100 – 1,000 yrs to form 1” of soil.

How is soil created2

How is soil created?

3. Animals & plants aerate the soil and decompose organic matter.

4. Bacteria and fungi grow and produce acids that further break down rock—producing minerals and nutrients for plants.

Soil k i m chart

Soil K.I.M Chart

12 10 warm up


Loose surface of the earth—made up of rock, decayed plants and animals, air, minerals, water

  • Soil types change due to different size mineral particles such as sand, silt and clay

What does soil look like

What does soil look like?

Soil Horizons

  • A Horizon—topsoil

  • B Horizon—subsoil

  • C Horizon—weathered bedrock

  • D Horizon—unweathered bedrock





Digging up the horizons

Digging up the Horizons

A-horizon =

B-horizon =





C-horizon =


D-horizon =

A horizon topsoil

A Horizon- Topsoil

  • Nutrient Rich

  • Usually dark to light brown

  • Made up of fine particles of weathered rock & humus



  • Dark organic (living) material made of dead, decaying plant and animal matter

B horizon subsoil

B Horizon Subsoil

  • Often red or brown

  • Clay, iron oxides and dissolved minerals washed down from A-Horizon

  • Deep roots found in this layer

C horizon

C Horizon

  • Partially weathered rock material (rock fragments)

D horizon

D Horizon

  • Bedrock

  • Un-weathered rock material

Soil recipe

Soil Recipe

  • Read the directions. Think of a food for each ingredient of soil (food should look or feel like soil component). Then, write directions or procedures to make your soil “recipe”

  • When finished, begin on back (homework)

Coach pg 102 104

Coach Pg. 102-104

  • Read the section and answer the questions

    • Do NOT need to write out question or answer, but must give evidence to support your answer

    • Example: What layer is made of solid rock

    • Answer: Bedrock

    • Evidence: “Bedrock is the solid layer of rock below the soil and loose rock (102)”

Exit ticket

Exit Ticket:

  • What is soil and how does it form?

  • What are the 4 horizons (layers) of the soil and what are they made of?






12 12 warm up

12.12 Warm-Up

  •  Organic matter in soil is made from —

    • Weathered parent rock

    • Decayed plants and animals

    • Acid Rain

    • Carbon Dioxide

  • The formation of a soil is influenced by all BUT one of the factors listed. That factor isA) climate.B) parent rock.C) the partial melting of local granite.D) biologic activity of plants and animals.

  • What is the process by which organic matter breaks down to become part of the soil?A) compactionB) decompositionC) erosionD) weathering

Human impact on soil and erosion

Human Impact on Soil and Erosion

  • Human Activity is the main force of speedy (accelerated) erosion.

  • Land-Use Practices that remove plants from an area increase erosion because the plant roots hold down the soil and prevent it from being washed or blown away

    • Farming (plowing and over-grazing)

    • Construction and Development

    • Mining



  • Over-grazed (by animals) or over-plowed (by humans) soil will be less fertile and will most likely be carried away by water and wind

  • Plants help in reducing soil erosion by holding the soil in place

Construction and development

Construction and Development

  • People dig away soil to make roads, houses, or other buildings

  • The soil can be washed or blown away because it’s plant cover has been removed (no roots to hold it down).

  • Sediment often goes into rivers, streams or lakes

    • This can harm organisms, flood rivers, and fill up lakes



Digging of mines involves the removal of plants and soil from the surface of the ground

Rocks and minerals are then exposed to the air and rainwater, which speeds up chemical weathering



  • Conservation Tillage: Reducing the number of times fields are plowed

  • Crop rotation: Planting different crops in different years makes soil more fertile

  • Fences/Windbreaks: Fences or rows of trees around fields can prevent soil from being eroded by wind

  • Terraces: Flat, step-like areas built on hills to stop the soil from eroding down the hill

Scavenger hunt

Scavenger Hunt

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