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12.10 Warm-Up. Title 2 new pages “Soil Warm-Ups” Create a KWL chart on Weathering Take out “Life of a Rock Comic Strip” and rubric (1/2 sheet) -10 points if not turned in yesterday`. Erosion and Weathering. Effects of Erosion. Title page “Effects of Erosion”

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12.10 Warm-Up

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12 10 warm up
12.10 Warm-Up

  • Title 2 new pages “Soil Warm-Ups”

  • Create a KWL chart on Weathering

  • Take out “Life of a Rock Comic Strip” and rubric (1/2 sheet)

    • -10 points if not turned in yesterday`



Effects of erosion
Effects of Erosion

  • Title page “Effects of Erosion”

  • For each before and after picture, write your observations of what has changed and your hypothesis (what caused it to change).


Solve the mystery of the great sphinx of giza
Solve the Mystery of theGreat Sphinx of Giza:

  • Observation: What is different about the Ancient Egyptian Sphinx in the two images?

  • Hypothesis: What do you think caused this difference?


12 10 warm up

Before:

After:

Great Sphinx

Observations:

Hypothesis:


Sphinx mystery uncovered
Sphinx Mystery Uncovered:

  • The head was made up of a harder strata—so it avoided a lot of weathering. (its nose was taken off by soldiers in the 18th century.

  • The body was made out of softer limestone (what kind or rock is this?

  • Some weathering by wind and sand and dust has occurred.

  • However, it is believed that flooding from the Nile River led to extreme water erosion.



Solve the mystery of the grand canyon
Solve the Mystery of The Grand Canyon:

  • Observation: What is different about the Grand Canyon in the two images?

  • Hypothesis: What do you think caused this difference?


12 10 warm up

Before:

Grand Canyon

Observations:

Hypothesis:

After:


Grand canyon mystery uncovered
Grand Canyon Mystery Uncovered:

  • Carved out (eroded) by the Colorado River over the past 17 million years.



Solve the mystery of the statue of liberty
Solve the mystery of the Statue of Liberty

  • Observation: What is different about the Statue of Liberty in the two images?

  • Hypothesis: What do you think caused this difference?


12 10 warm up

Statue of Liberty

Observations:

Hypothesis:

Before:

After:


Statue of liberty mystery uncovered
Statue of Liberty Mystery Uncovered:

  • The statue of liberty is made of copper (like a penny) over time it is being oxidized by water and air– a form of chemical weathering—making it green instead of silver.


Solve the mystery of the landscape
Solve the mystery of the landscape:

  • Observation: What is different about the landscape in the two images?

  • Hypothesis: What do you think caused this difference?


12 10 warm up

Landscape

Observations:

Hypothesis:

Before:

After:


Landscape mystery uncovered
Landscape Mystery Uncovered:

  • Glaciers carve through plateaus, mountains and land easily, causing weathering and erosion


Sandcastle observation hypothesis

1970s:

SandcastleObservation:Hypothesis:

Today:

1990s:


Castle mystery uncovered
Castle Mystery Uncovered:

  • The largest “active”/ “living” Sand Dune on the East Coast—Jockey’s Ridge North Carolina

  • The amount of sand making up the 420 acres of Jockey's Ridge is equal to about 6,000,000 dump truck loads!

  • The Sand is mostly quartz rock which came from the mountains millions of years ago.—what kind of rock is quartz rock?


Castle mystery uncovered1
Castle Mystery Uncovered:

  • Each year winds from each directions erode the Dune, picking up sand and moving.

  • Over time the Dune moved so much it covered an old Put-put coarse—which the castle was part of.

  • Over more time the Dune moved so much that it is uncovering the Put-put coarse and unveiling a weathered/eroded castle—wind and sand weathering.


Share what do you think
Share:What do you think?

  • http://www.brainpop.com/science/earthsystem/erosion/

  • http://www.brainpop.com/science/weather/weathering/

Let’s see, watch and learn:


12 10 warm up

Erosion

Erosion is the natural moving of material from one place to another.

2. Mountain rivers can form V-shaped rivers and canyons.

3. It takes a river millions of years to create a valley or canyon.


12 10 warm up


Weathering cornell notes
Weathering Cornell Notes and change landscapes. What typically needs to happen to the rock before it is eroded?


12 10 warm up

Mechanical Weathering and change landscapes. What typically needs to happen to the rock before it is eroded?

Mechanical— when a rock is broken into smaller pieces —doesn’t change the chemical composition of the rock

Examples:

-- Grand Canyon, carved out by the Colorado River—no change of the rock just denting the rock or changing its shape

-- Sphinx of Giza—sand and water both chipped away at the Sphinx changing its shape but not what it was made of.

Think of sand paper or breaking/cracking something!


Types of mechanical weathering
Types of Mechanical Weathering and change landscapes. What typically needs to happen to the rock before it is eroded?

  • Abrasion: When rocks move (erode), they collide with each other and break apart

  • Expansion and Contraction: Heating and cooling causes rock to swell and shrink and crack

  • Frost action: Water fills cracks, and then expands when it freezes

  • Plants and animals: Plants wedge in rocks, animals tunnel and dig


12 10 warm up

Chemical Weathering and change landscapes. What typically needs to happen to the rock before it is eroded?

Chemical--when a rock is broken down through a chemical change

Examples:

--Statue of Liberty, tarnished/ rusted by the air and water exposure and turned green

--Rusting of a bicycle

-- Acid Rain can erode statues, gravestones etc.

Think of changing the entire rock!


Types of chemical weathering
Types of Chemical Weathering and change landscapes. What typically needs to happen to the rock before it is eroded?

  • Hydrolysis: Hydrogen in water reacts with minerals, creating new compound

  • Carbonation: Acid in water causes the rock to dissolve

  • Oxidation: The chemical reaction of oxygen with other substances (rust)


Weathering worksheet
Weathering Worksheet and change landscapes. What typically needs to happen to the rock before it is eroded?

  • Identify each statement as mechanical or chemical weathering

  • Compl


12 11 warm up on soil warm up page
12.11 Warm-Up and change landscapes. What typically needs to happen to the rock before it is eroded?(on soil warm-up page)

  • Chemical weathering is different than mechanical weathering because it

    • Breaks down rock

    • Moves rock from place to place

    • Changes the composition of rock

    • Makes new landforms

  •  Write claim and evidence.

  • Take out both sheets of homework (versatiles and half sheet)


12 10 warm up
Soil and change landscapes. What typically needs to happen to the rock before it is eroded?

http://www.brainpop.com/science/earthsystem/soil/


How is soil created
How is soil created? and change landscapes. What typically needs to happen to the rock before it is eroded?

It takes 100 – 1,000 yrs to form 1” of soil.


How is soil created1
How is soil created? and change landscapes. What typically needs to happen to the rock before it is eroded?

1. Exposed rock (“bedrock”) starts to be weathered.

2. Wind, moving water, changes in temperature continue the weathering and erosion process.

3. Broken pieces get broken down further and further

It takes 100 – 1,000 yrs to form 1” of soil.


How is soil created2
How is soil created? and change landscapes. What typically needs to happen to the rock before it is eroded?

3. Animals & plants aerate the soil and decompose organic matter.

4. Bacteria and fungi grow and produce acids that further break down rock—producing minerals and nutrients for plants.


Soil k i m chart
Soil K.I.M Chart and change landscapes. What typically needs to happen to the rock before it is eroded?


12 10 warm up
Soil and change landscapes. What typically needs to happen to the rock before it is eroded?

Loose surface of the earth—made up of rock, decayed plants and animals, air, minerals, water

  • Soil types change due to different size mineral particles such as sand, silt and clay


What does soil look like
What does soil look like? and change landscapes. What typically needs to happen to the rock before it is eroded?

Soil Horizons

  • A Horizon—topsoil

  • B Horizon—subsoil

  • C Horizon—weathered bedrock

  • D Horizon—unweathered bedrock

A

B

C

D


Digging up the horizons
Digging up the Horizons and change landscapes. What typically needs to happen to the rock before it is eroded?

A-horizon =

B-horizon =

=

=

=

=

C-horizon =

=

D-horizon =


A horizon topsoil
A Horizon- Topsoil and change landscapes. What typically needs to happen to the rock before it is eroded?

  • Nutrient Rich

  • Usually dark to light brown

  • Made up of fine particles of weathered rock & humus


Humus
Humus and change landscapes. What typically needs to happen to the rock before it is eroded?

  • Dark organic (living) material made of dead, decaying plant and animal matter


B horizon subsoil
B Horizon Subsoil and change landscapes. What typically needs to happen to the rock before it is eroded?

  • Often red or brown

  • Clay, iron oxides and dissolved minerals washed down from A-Horizon

  • Deep roots found in this layer


C horizon
C Horizon and change landscapes. What typically needs to happen to the rock before it is eroded?

  • Partially weathered rock material (rock fragments)


D horizon
D Horizon and change landscapes. What typically needs to happen to the rock before it is eroded?

  • Bedrock

  • Un-weathered rock material


Soil recipe
Soil Recipe and change landscapes. What typically needs to happen to the rock before it is eroded?

  • Read the directions. Think of a food for each ingredient of soil (food should look or feel like soil component). Then, write directions or procedures to make your soil “recipe”

  • When finished, begin on back (homework)


Coach pg 102 104
Coach Pg. 102-104 and change landscapes. What typically needs to happen to the rock before it is eroded?

  • Read the section and answer the questions

    • Do NOT need to write out question or answer, but must give evidence to support your answer

    • Example: What layer is made of solid rock

    • Answer: Bedrock

    • Evidence: “Bedrock is the solid layer of rock below the soil and loose rock (102)”


Exit ticket
Exit Ticket: and change landscapes. What typically needs to happen to the rock before it is eroded?

  • What is soil and how does it form?

  • What are the 4 horizons (layers) of the soil and what are they made of?

A

B

C

D

?


12 12 warm up
12.12 Warm-Up and change landscapes. What typically needs to happen to the rock before it is eroded?

  •  Organic matter in soil is made from —

    • Weathered parent rock

    • Decayed plants and animals

    • Acid Rain

    • Carbon Dioxide

  • The formation of a soil is influenced by all BUT one of the factors listed. That factor isA) climate.B) parent rock.C) the partial melting of local granite.D) biologic activity of plants and animals.

  • What is the process by which organic matter breaks down to become part of the soil?A) compactionB) decompositionC) erosionD) weathering


Human impact on soil and erosion
Human Impact on Soil and Erosion and change landscapes. What typically needs to happen to the rock before it is eroded?

  • Human Activity is the main force of speedy (accelerated) erosion.

  • Land-Use Practices that remove plants from an area increase erosion because the plant roots hold down the soil and prevent it from being washed or blown away

    • Farming (plowing and over-grazing)

    • Construction and Development

    • Mining


Farming
Farming and change landscapes. What typically needs to happen to the rock before it is eroded?

  • Over-grazed (by animals) or over-plowed (by humans) soil will be less fertile and will most likely be carried away by water and wind

  • Plants help in reducing soil erosion by holding the soil in place


Construction and development
Construction and Development and change landscapes. What typically needs to happen to the rock before it is eroded?

  • People dig away soil to make roads, houses, or other buildings

  • The soil can be washed or blown away because it’s plant cover has been removed (no roots to hold it down).

  • Sediment often goes into rivers, streams or lakes

    • This can harm organisms, flood rivers, and fill up lakes


Mining
Mining and change landscapes. What typically needs to happen to the rock before it is eroded?

Digging of mines involves the removal of plants and soil from the surface of the ground

Rocks and minerals are then exposed to the air and rainwater, which speeds up chemical weathering


Solutions
Solutions and change landscapes. What typically needs to happen to the rock before it is eroded?

  • Conservation Tillage: Reducing the number of times fields are plowed

  • Crop rotation: Planting different crops in different years makes soil more fertile

  • Fences/Windbreaks: Fences or rows of trees around fields can prevent soil from being eroded by wind

  • Terraces: Flat, step-like areas built on hills to stop the soil from eroding down the hill


Scavenger hunt
Scavenger Hunt and change landscapes. What typically needs to happen to the rock before it is eroded?


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