Dependency syntax an introduction
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Dependency Syntax. An Introduction. Leonid Iomdin Institute for Information Transmission Problems, Russian Academy of Sciences [email protected], [email protected] Program Overview: p. 1.

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Dependency syntax an introduction

Dependency Syntax. An Introduction

Leonid Iomdin

Institute for Information Transmission Problems,Russian Academy of Sciences

[email protected], [email protected]


Program overview p 1

Program Overview: p. 1

  • 1. Basic Principles of The Meaning-Text theory by Igor Mel’čuk. Language as a Universal Translator of Senses to Texts and Texts to Senses. Text analysis and text generation. The theory of integral linguistic description by Juri Apresjan. The grammar and the dictionary of language.

  • 2. Two syntactic levels of sentence representation: surface syntax and deep syntax.

December 4, 2009. Lecture 5


Program overview p 2

Program Overview: p. 2

  • 3. The dependency tree structure as a syntactic representation of the sentence. Dependency tree vs. Constituent tree: advantages and drawbacks of both types of representation. Limits of the dependency tree. The hypothesis of two syntactic starts.

  • 4. The notions of syntactic relation. Major classes of syntactic relations: actant, attributive, coordinative and auxiliary relation classes.

  • 5. The notion of syntactic feature. Syntactic features vs. Semantic features.

December 4, 2009. Lecture 5


Program overview p 3

Program Overview: p. 3

  • 6. Actants and valencies. Active, passive and distant valencies. The government pattern of a dictionary entry. An overview of actant syntactic relations. The predicative relation. The agentive relation. Completive relations.

  • 7. An overview of attributive syntactic relations. Grammatical Agreement. Numerals and Quantitative Constructions. The system of Quantification Syntax of Russian.

  • 8. Grammatical coordination as a type of grammatical subordination. An overview of coordinative syntactic relations.

December 4, 2009. Lecture 5


Program overview p 4

Program Overview: p. 4

  • 9. Auxiliary syntactic relations. Analytical grammatical forms as an object of syntax.

  • 10 Microsyntax of Language. Minor Type Sentences. Syntactic Idioms.

  • 11. Lexical Functions in the Dictionary and the Grammar.

  • 12. Syntactic description and syntactic rules. Dependency Syntax in NLP. Dependency Syntax in Machine Translation. Syntactically Tagged Corpus of Texts.

December 4, 2009. Lecture 5


Surface syntax

Surface Syntax

  • is the main linguistic discipline to which this course is devoted: conversion between deep morphological representation and surface syntactic representation

December 4, 2009. Lecture 5


Classes of syntactic relations

Classes of Syntactic Relations

  • 1) actant relations;

  • 2) attributive relations;

  • 3) coordinative relations;

  • 4) auxiliary relations

December 4, 2009. Lecture 5


Syntactic features

Syntactic Features

MESUR

ampere, angstrom, atmosphere, barrel, bushel, centimetre, …

Two inches wide

Two inches wider

An inch wide

An inch wider

*A table wide

*A table wider

December 4, 2009. Lecture 5


Syntactic features1

Syntactic Features

PREDTO

abnormal, absurd, acceptable, aimless, altruistic, difficult, easy, hard…. (700 adjectives)

To stay one more day was absurd

It was absurd to stay one more day

absolute, relative ≠ PREDTO

December 4, 2009. Lecture 5


Syntactic features and valencies

Syntactic Features and Valencies

ABNORMAL: What valency structure?

Abnormal behavior

Abnormal child

behavior, child are passive actants of abnormal

Can these actants be made active?

No, they cannot.

December 4, 2009. Lecture 5


Syntactic features and valencies1

Syntactic Features and Valencies

ABNORMAL: What valency structure?

However, these actants can be made distant: The behavior is abnormal.

The child is abnormal

Can we now elaborate on the behavior? What can it be?

December 4, 2009. Lecture 5


Syntactic features and valencies2

Syntactic Features and Valencies

ABNORMAL: What valency structure?

Behaviors:

Running around

Loitering

Studying dependency syntax

Agreeing to everything

December 4, 2009. Lecture 5


Syntactic features and valencies3

Syntactic Features and Valencies

ABNORMAL: What valency structure?

Behaviors:

To run

To loiter

To study dependency syntax

To agree to everything

December 4, 2009. Lecture 5


Syntactic features and valencies4

Syntactic Features and Valencies

ABNORMAL: What valency structure?

Behaviors:

To run

To loiter

To study dependency syntax

To agree to everything

December 4, 2009. Lecture 5


Syntactic features and valencies5

Syntactic Features and Valencies

ABNORMAL: What valency structure?

Can we elaborate on the child? What can it be?

John

Mary

My son

Your brother

Whoever likes ice-cream

December 4, 2009. Lecture 5


Syntactic features and valencies6

Syntactic Features and Valencies

ABNORMAL: What valency structure?

It cannot, however, be

Liking ice-cream

Studying dependency syntax etc.

December 4, 2009. Lecture 5


Syntactic features and valencies7

Syntactic Features and Valencies

ABNORMAL: What valency structure?

Behaviors:

To run is abnormal

To loiter is abnormal

To study dependency syntax is abnormal

To agree to everything is abnormal

December 4, 2009. Lecture 5


Syntactic features and valencies8

Syntactic Features and Valencies

ABNORMAL: What valency structure?

It is abnormal to run

It is abnormal to loiter

It is abnormal to study dependency syntax

It is abnormal to agree to everything

December 4, 2009. Lecture 5


Syntactic features and valencies9

Syntactic Features and Valencies

ABNORMAL: What valency structure?

For completeness: is this the only valency of abnormal?

Before answering the question, we will consider the noun abnormality.

December 4, 2009. Lecture 5


Syntactic features and valencies10

Syntactic Features and Valencies

ABNORMALITY: What valency structure?

Abnormality of his behavior

Behavior instantiates an active valency of abnormality

Is this the only valency of abnormality?

How can we use this noun phrase naturally? We can say e.g.

December 4, 2009. Lecture 5


Syntactic features and valencies11

Syntactic Features and Valencies

ABNORMALITY: What valency structure?

The abnormality of his behavior was that he could not concentrate on any subject for more than a few seconds at a time.

The abnormality of his behavior consisted in his inability to concentrate on any subject for more than a few seconds at a time.

December 4, 2009. Lecture 5


Syntactic features and valencies12

Syntactic Features and Valencies

ABNORMALITY: What valency structure?

The abnormality of his behavior was that he could not concentrate on any subject for more than a few seconds at a time.

his behavior instantiates the 1st valency of abnormality (patient, active valency)

that he could not concentrate… instantiates the 2nd valency of abnormality (content, distant valency)

December 4, 2009. Lecture 5


Syntactic features and valencies13

Syntactic Features and Valencies

ABNORMALITY: What valency structure?

The abnormality of his behavior consisted in his inability to concentrate on any subject for more than a few seconds at a time.

his behavior instantiates the 1st valency of abnormality (patient, active valency)

his inability to concentrate… instantiates the 2nd valency of abnormality (content, distant valency)

December 4, 2009. Lecture 5


Syntactic features and valencies14

Syntactic Features and Valencies

ABNORMALITY: What valency structure?

NB: this distant valency cannot be made active: * The abnormality that he could not concentrate…

* The abnormality of his inability to concentrate…

December 4, 2009. Lecture 5


Syntactic features and valencies15

Syntactic Features and Valencies

ABNORMAL: What valency structure?

is patient the only valency of abnormal?

No. It also has the 2nd valency of content:

His behavior is abnormal in that he cannot concentrate on any subject for more than a few seconds at a time.

Note that this valency is active, even though its instantiation is rather exotic.

December 4, 2009. Lecture 5


Syntactic features2

Syntactic Features

PREDTHAT

abnormal, absurd, nice, fine,… (400 adjectives)

That he stayed one more day was absurd

It was absurd that he stayed one more day

difficult, easy ≠ PREDTHAT

December 4, 2009. Lecture 5


Syntactic features3

Syntactic Features

PREDIF

absurd, natural, contranatural, accidental, amiable, smart, spiteful, splendid, …(50 adjectives)

It would be absurd if he stayed one more day

difficult, easy ≠ PREDIF

new = ? old =?

December 4, 2009. Lecture 5


Syntactic features4

Syntactic Features

PREDTHAT, ^PREDTO (200 adjectives)

wrong, right = PREDTHAT and PREDTO

It was wrong that he stayed one more day

It was wrong to stay one more day

false, true = PREDTHAT, not PREDTO

It was false that he stayed one more day

*It was false to stay one more day

December 4, 2009. Lecture 5


Syntactic features5

Syntactic Features

remarkable ?

PREDTHAT, not PREDTO

That John agreed was remarkable

*To make John agree is remarkable

December 4, 2009. Lecture 5


Syntactic features6

Syntactic Features

PREDTO, ^PREDTHAT (500 adjectives)

aimless, useless = PREDTO, not PREDTHAT

It was useless to plead with him

December 4, 2009. Lecture 5


Syntactic features some training

Syntactic Features: some training

green

nice

American

mathematical

comprehensive

curious

criminal

December 4, 2009. Lecture 5


Syntactic features some training1

Syntactic Features: some training

negative

prolific

acceptable

heavy

high

old

similar

December 4, 2009. Lecture 5


Completive relations

Completive relations

  • The 1st, 2nd, 3rd, 4th or 5th completive SSRel (1-compl, 2-compl etc.) links an object or a complement to its governor

    1-compl: He idolized [X] the girl [Y].

    1-compl, 2-compl:

    He gave Mary a piece of advice.

    Mary was given a piece of advice.

    A policeman noticed me cross the street.

    He helped her find the book.

December 4, 2009. Lecture 5


Completive relations1

Completive relations

  • He wanted to help me.

  • He wanted me to help.

  • He considered it remarkable that John agreed.

  • *He considered it remarkable to make John agree.

December 4, 2009. Lecture 5


He considered it remarkable that

He considered it remarkable that…

December 4, 2009. Lecture 5


He considered it remarkable to

He considered it remarkable to…

December 4, 2009. Lecture 5


Completive relations2

Completive relations

  • It is very unlike John to be late.

  • Two things are worth mentioning.

  • This is worth its weight in gold.

  • He is wary of giving evidence.

  • John is reluctant to go.

  • Pressure depends on temperature.

  • Animals are different from us in that they cannot speak

December 4, 2009. Lecture 5


Completive relations3

Completive relations

  • It is easy to forget.

  • ‘To forget is easy’

  • ‘This thing is easy to forget’.

December 4, 2009. Lecture 5


Copulative relation

Copulative Relation

  • This is Prague

  • He was great.

  • We all are in Prague.

  • The story was about love.

  • The story was by O’Henry.

  • The letter was to Harry.

  • The idea was to attract young researchers

  • It was of huge proportions.

  • He was unlike the others

December 4, 2009. Lecture 5


Agentive relation

Agentive Relation

  • This question was answered [X] by [Y] most of the students.

  • The question [X] by [Y] the commission concerned nuclear disarmament.

  • For [Y] him to agree [X] would require strength.

December 4, 2009. Lecture 5


Prepositional relation

Prepositional Relation

  • I brought the book from the library to my brother in the afternoon for no reason at all

  • Give the book to whoever comes first

  • He spoke with as many as ten people

December 4, 2009. Lecture 5


Prepositional relation1

Prepositional Relation

  • It depends on how you behave in future

  • It depends on whether you behave yourself

  • He put the book on the table

  • *He put the book on whether you behave yourself

December 4, 2009. Lecture 5


Next lecture

Next lecture

  • The remaining Actant Relations. Attributive Syntactic Relations. Qualificative and Restrictive Modifiers

December 4, 2009. Lecture 5


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