Minerals
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MINERALS. Reese. How do they form. Minerals form when molten materials cools and hardens inside the Earth or on the surface. Sometimes minerals from when solutions with solutes evaporate. MINERALS. Occur naturally and are inorganic solids (not alive). Have crystalline structure. MINERALS.

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MINERALS

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MINERALS

Reese


How do they form

  • Minerals form when molten materials cools and hardens inside the Earth or on the surface.

  • Sometimes minerals from when solutions with solutes evaporate.


MINERALS

  • Occur naturally and are inorganic solids (not alive).

  • Have crystalline

    structure.


MINERALS

  • Chemically minerals are elements or compounds.

  • Example: Gold is an element & a mineral.

  • Example: NaCl is a compound & a mineral.


MINERALS

  • Rocks are made up of two

    or more minerals.

  • Example: Limestone is

    a rock made up minerals

    calcite & aragonite.

  • Rocks can be minerals but

    not all minerals are rocks.

  • Example: Cu is a mineral

    but is not a rock


MINERALS

  • There are about 3,000 minerals on Earth.


BARITE


CARBON


QUARTZ


GRAPHITE


Copper


FLUORITE


MINERAL PROPERTIES


LUSTER

  • The way a mineral’s surface reflects light.


LUSTER

  • May vary from one sample to another sample of the same substance.

  • Two major types of luster:

  • Metallic

  • Nonmetallic


Metallic Luster


Nonmetallic luster

  • Earthy Luster

  • Glassy


Nonmetallic Pearly Luster


COLOR

  • Not very useful for identifying minerals whose color vary with the sample.

  • Example: the colors of minerals quartz & fluorite vary with their samples.

    Quartz Fluorite


COLOR

  • Useful only for those minerals which always have the same color or very unique colors.

  • Example: Malachite– green

    azurite----- blue


SULFUR


Malachite


Azurite


STREAK

  • Color of a mineral in it powdered form.

  • Can be obtained by rubbing the mineral across a streak plate-- a piece of unglazed porcelain tile.

  • Example: hematite always gives a reddish brown streak no matter what type of luster it displays.


Streak Examples

  • Hematite leaves a reddish brown streak.


Streak Examples

  • Pyrite leaves a greenish black streak.


HARDNESS

  • Ability of a mineral to resist scratching.

  • It is tested using the Mohs Hardness Scale.


Mohs Hardness Scale

  • Based on the fact that a harder mineral will scratch a softer one.

  • Ten minerals are numbered from softest to hardest.

  • Talc is the softest & has a value of 1.

  • Diamond, the hardest of all minerals, has a value of 10.


DENSITY

  • Useful mineral identification property.

  • Used to determine the identity and purity of minerals.

  • Pure mineral density is a constant value.

  • Density = mass/volume.

  • Example: gold and pyrite appear similar. Pyrite is often called “fool’s gold”. You can tell the two minerals apart by comparing their densities.

  • Gold’s density: 19.3 g/cc

  • Pyrite’s density: 5.01 g/cc


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