Minerals
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MINERALS. Reese. How do they form. Minerals form when molten materials cools and hardens inside the Earth or on the surface. Sometimes minerals from when solutions with solutes evaporate. MINERALS. Occur naturally and are inorganic solids (not alive). Have crystalline structure. MINERALS.

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MINERALS

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Minerals

MINERALS

Reese


How do they form

How do they form

  • Minerals form when molten materials cools and hardens inside the Earth or on the surface.

  • Sometimes minerals from when solutions with solutes evaporate.


Minerals1

MINERALS

  • Occur naturally and are inorganic solids (not alive).

  • Have crystalline

    structure.


Minerals2

MINERALS

  • Chemically minerals are elements or compounds.

  • Example: Gold is an element & a mineral.

  • Example: NaCl is a compound & a mineral.


Minerals3

MINERALS

  • Rocks are made up of two

    or more minerals.

  • Example: Limestone is

    a rock made up minerals

    calcite & aragonite.

  • Rocks can be minerals but

    not all minerals are rocks.

  • Example: Cu is a mineral

    but is not a rock


Minerals4

MINERALS

  • There are about 3,000 minerals on Earth.


Barite

BARITE


Carbon

CARBON


Quartz

QUARTZ


Graphite

GRAPHITE


Copper

Copper


Fluorite

FLUORITE


Mineral properties

MINERAL PROPERTIES


Luster

LUSTER

  • The way a mineral’s surface reflects light.


Luster1

LUSTER

  • May vary from one sample to another sample of the same substance.

  • Two major types of luster:

  • Metallic

  • Nonmetallic


Metallic luster

Metallic Luster


Nonmetallic luster

Nonmetallic luster

  • Earthy Luster

  • Glassy


Nonmetallic pearly luster

Nonmetallic Pearly Luster


Color

COLOR

  • Not very useful for identifying minerals whose color vary with the sample.

  • Example: the colors of minerals quartz & fluorite vary with their samples.

    Quartz Fluorite


Color1

COLOR

  • Useful only for those minerals which always have the same color or very unique colors.

  • Example: Malachite– green

    azurite----- blue


Sulfur

SULFUR


Malachite

Malachite


Azurite

Azurite


Streak

STREAK

  • Color of a mineral in it powdered form.

  • Can be obtained by rubbing the mineral across a streak plate-- a piece of unglazed porcelain tile.

  • Example: hematite always gives a reddish brown streak no matter what type of luster it displays.


Streak examples

Streak Examples

  • Hematite leaves a reddish brown streak.


Streak examples1

Streak Examples

  • Pyrite leaves a greenish black streak.


Hardness

HARDNESS

  • Ability of a mineral to resist scratching.

  • It is tested using the Mohs Hardness Scale.


Mohs hardness scale

Mohs Hardness Scale

  • Based on the fact that a harder mineral will scratch a softer one.

  • Ten minerals are numbered from softest to hardest.

  • Talc is the softest & has a value of 1.

  • Diamond, the hardest of all minerals, has a value of 10.


Density

DENSITY

  • Useful mineral identification property.

  • Used to determine the identity and purity of minerals.

  • Pure mineral density is a constant value.

  • Density = mass/volume.

  • Example: gold and pyrite appear similar. Pyrite is often called “fool’s gold”. You can tell the two minerals apart by comparing their densities.

  • Gold’s density: 19.3 g/cc

  • Pyrite’s density: 5.01 g/cc


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