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STAND ESTABLISHMENT: Influencing factors. Frank J. Dainello, PhD Ext. Horticulturist Com. Veg. Crops Dept of Hort. Sci. A T M. STAND ESTABLISHMENT. “the sins of planting will haunt you all season” Anonymous. A thought worth remembering!!. 3 Phases of Established. n.

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slide1

STAND ESTABLISHMENT:

Influencing

factors

Frank J. Dainello, PhD

Ext. Horticulturist

Com. Veg. Crops

Dept of Hort. Sci.

ATM

slide2

STAND ESTABLISHMENT

“the sins of planting will haunt you all season”Anonymous

A thought worth remembering!!

3 phases of established
3 Phases of Established

n

3. Seedling establishment

STAND ESTABLISHMENT

2. Seed germination

& emergence

  • Seed bed
  • preparation/planting
establishment phase i
Establishment –Phase I

n

STAND ESTABLISHMENT

  • Seed bed
  • preparation/planting
seedbed preperation
SEEDBED PREPERATION

“The facet of

stand establishment

in which the greatest

sins are committed!”

slide6

SEEDBED PREPERATION

  • The seedbed is to the crop as the foundation is to the house
  • Improper preparation leads to uneven emergence, lack of uniformity of stands, weed and pest problems
  • Reduce yield
  • Increased production cost
seedbed preperation1
SEEDBED PREPERATION
  • Year round undertaking
    • Employ practices to enhance tilth and structure
      • Immediate crop destruction
      • Keep weeds under control
      • Build organic matter
      • Pay attention to rotations
slide8

PLANTING

SEED PLACEMENT

IMPACTS STAND ESTABLISHEMT

  • TOO DEEP:
    • Increased soil impedance pressure
    • reduced gas exchange
    • risk of water logging and or crusting effect
  • TOO SHALLLOW:
    • risk of insufficient moisture for imbibition
    • risk of high temperature injury

Lateral placement

Depth placement

Depth: 3 times the seed width

establishment phase ii
Establishment- Phase II

PHASE 2

2. Seed germination

& emergence

germination
GERMINATION
  • The process by which a viable(living) seed imbibes water, triggering respiration, protein synthesis and other metabolic activities which cause radicle emergence.
germination1
GERMINATION

Seeds are considered to have germinated once radicle emergence has occurred

Germinated seed

(Radicles emergenced)

gernimation environmental factors
GERNIMATION (ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS)
  • Moisture
    • Seed content
    • Soil content
  • Temperature
  • Oxygen/gas exchange
seed moisture content
SEED MOISTURE CONTENT
  • Seeds stored 4 - 5 % moisture content
  • Water needed to active metabolic processes
  • Excess moisture
    • inhibits gas exchange(stops metabolic processes)
    • leakage of sugars, organic and amino acids
    • increase pathogen susceptibility(substrate)
oxygen gas exchange
Oxygen & Gas Exchange
  • Seeds are living organisms.
  • Oxygen needed in metabolic process for germination to occur in vegetables
  • Water logged soils force oxygen out of soil microclimate and stops processes
    • can cause physiological breakdown
    • decay as a result of pathogenic attack
moisture germination
Moisture & Germination
  • Moisture stress
    • The greater the deficit the slower the germination and radicle emergence
    • Greater negative effect on seed with poor vigor
  • More advanced germination the greater the impact of moisture stress
    • some evidence for cycling wetting and drying prior to planting enhances germination.
germination soil physical properties
GERMINATION(Soil physical properties)
  • Soil moisture content
  • Soil temperature
  • Soil insect and disease pressure
  • Soil impedance
temperature germination
TEMPERATURE & GERMINATION
  • Generally the higher the temperature the better the germination for most vegetables
    • warm temperatures increases respiration rate and other metabolic processes
  • Each species has an optimum temperature range above or below which germination is reduced or inhibited
    • temperature impact pathogen activity which can have a detrimental effect on germination
soil to seed contact
SOIL TO SEED CONTACT
  • Onset of germination delayed at soil matrix potentials
  • Highest germination % between -0.3 & -0.1
  • Soil matrix potentials outside of this range – DELAYED GERMINATION
soil to seed contact1
SOIL TO SEED CONTACT
  • Germination ultimately determined by:
    • the impedance of the soil matrix
      • due to surface and colloidal forces
    • the contact of the seed with soil moisture
      • irrespective of the initial difference between the water potential of the seed interior and the soil
soil factors impacting germination emergence
SOIL FACTORS IMPACTING GERMINATION & EMERGENCE
  • Soil impedance – the pressure or barrier effect soil has on emergence.
soil impedance
SOIL IMPEDANCE
  • Emergence force of seed hypocotyls will determine how effective a specie is in over coming the negative effect of soil impedance.
  • Small seeded crops such as carrots lack good emergence force
  • Crust and/or deep planting very disastrous to crops lacking good emergence force
emergence vigor
EMERGENCE VIGOR
  • The ability of a hypocotyls to rapidly emerge through the soil profile and emerge above the soil surface.
factors impacting germination emergence1
FACTORS IMPACTING GERMINATION & EMERGENCE
  • Soil insect and disease pressure
establishment phase iii
Establishment- Phase III

Seedling establishment

PHASE3

seedling establishment
SEEDLING ESTABLISHMENT
  • The time from seedling emergence from the soil until 2 – 4 true leaf stage
      • Impacted by
          • Insects
          • Diseases
          • Soil moisture and temperature
          • Wind Desiccation
          • Sand basting
          • Hail
          • Chemical injury
stand establishment goal
STAND ESTABLISHMENTGOAL
  • TO REDUCE THE TIME REQUIRED FOR SEED GERMINATION TO SEEDLING ESTABLISHMENT
slide31

n

3. Seedling establishment

STAND ESTABLISHMENT

2. Seed germination

& emergence

  • Seed bed
  • preparation/planting
3 components of stand establishment
3 COMPONENTS OF STAND ESTABLISHMENT
  • Good Soil Conditions
  • Viable Seeds
  • Favorable Microclimate
slide33

GOOD SOIL

CONDITIONS

(COMPOENT # 1)

ideal seed bed soil conditions
IDEAL SEED BED SOIL CONDITIONS
  • Well pulverized
  • Free of clods and plant residue
  • Firm and level
  • Provide good soil to seed contact
means of achieving good soil to seed contact
MEANS of ACHIEVING GOOD SOIL to SEED CONTACT
  • Ovoid working soil when wet
  • Ovoid excessive disking, causes compaction restricts root growth & yield
  • Pulverize soil to the point that it is free of clods and debris
    • Rotovators are ideal implements
slide36

VIABLE SEEDS

(COMPOENT # 2)

seeds
SEEDS
  • Embryonic orNew plants
    • plant in miniature -
  • Contained in a Dispersing structures
    • protected in a cover (the seed coat) until a self sufficient autotrophic organism can be established
viable seed
VIABLE SEED
  • Seed Having The Ability To Germinate and develop into a seedling once planted!
factors influencing seed viability
FACTORSINFLUENCING SEED VIABILITY
  • Seed coat (testa)
  • Food reserves
  • Dormancy
  • Condition under which seed produced
  • Storage conditions
seed coat characteristics
SEED COAT CHARACTERISTICS
  • Surface area
  • Nature of the surface
  • Mucilage content
  • Thickness
  • Porosity
slide41
Thickness or Porosity
    • can impede water uptake
    • restrict radicle emergence
    • impact gas exchange
      • These then interact to slow or stop respiration and other metabolic processes associated with germination
seed food reserves
SEED FOOD RESERVES
  • Quantity determined by the quality of the seed crop
    • Growing conditions
    • Harvest
    • Storage
conditions under which seed crop is grown
CONDITIONS UNDER WHICH SEED CROP IS GROWN
  • Stressed plants are weak plants which in turn produce unviable or poor germinating seed
seed dormancy
SEED DORMANCY
  • The failure of seed to germinate even under apparently favorable conditions
    • Due to a inherent blocking mechanism within the seed
seed dormancy1
SEED DORMANCY
  • Causes:
    • Chilling requirement
    • Excessive temperature
    • Inhibitors
    • Seed coat thickness
slide46

FAVORABLE

ENVIRONMENT

(COMPOENT # 3)

root zone microclimate post germination temperature moiusture stress
ROOT ZONE MICROCLIMATE (POST GERMINATION TEMPERATURE & MOIUSTURE STRESS)
  • Radicle injury or death
  • Hypocotol injury or death
  • No, or poor or uneven stands
  • reduced yield
slide49

INFLUENCE

OF

MICROCLIMATE

ON

STAND ESTABLISHMENT

Covered

Trenches

Fruit nearing maturity

No fruit

Non Covered

Std. beds

seeding rate
SEEDING RATE
  • Inadequate rates, poor stands due to

lack of potential seedlings emerging

  • Excessive rates, over crowding weak spindly plants
summary major factors impacting good stand establishment
SUMMARY: Major factors impacting good stand establishment
  • Seed Quality
  • Proper Seedbed Preparation
  • Seedbed Moisture
  • Soil temperature
  • Soil impedance
  • Soil borne pathogens
slide52

“The

sins of planting

will

haunt

you

all

season !”

A

Department

Of

Horticultural Sciences

Program

ATM

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