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STAND ESTABLISHMENT: Influencing factors. Frank J. Dainello, PhD Ext. Horticulturist Com. Veg. Crops Dept of Hort. Sci. A T M. STAND ESTABLISHMENT. “the sins of planting will haunt you all season” Anonymous. A thought worth remembering!!. 3 Phases of Established. n.

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STAND ESTABLISHMENT: Influencing factors

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Stand establishment influencing factors

STAND ESTABLISHMENT:

Influencing

factors

Frank J. Dainello, PhD

Ext. Horticulturist

Com. Veg. Crops

Dept of Hort. Sci.

ATM


Stand establishment influencing factors

STAND ESTABLISHMENT

“the sins of planting will haunt you all season”Anonymous

A thought worth remembering!!


3 phases of established

3 Phases of Established

n

3. Seedling establishment

STAND ESTABLISHMENT

2. Seed germination

& emergence

  • Seed bed

  • preparation/planting


Establishment phase i

Establishment –Phase I

n

STAND ESTABLISHMENT

  • Seed bed

  • preparation/planting


Seedbed preperation

SEEDBED PREPERATION

“The facet of

stand establishment

in which the greatest

sins are committed!”


Stand establishment influencing factors

SEEDBED PREPERATION

  • The seedbed is to the crop as the foundation is to the house

  • Improper preparation leads to uneven emergence, lack of uniformity of stands, weed and pest problems

  • Reduce yield

  • Increased production cost


Seedbed preperation1

SEEDBED PREPERATION

  • Year round undertaking

    • Employ practices to enhance tilth and structure

      • Immediate crop destruction

      • Keep weeds under control

      • Build organic matter

      • Pay attention to rotations


Stand establishment influencing factors

PLANTING

SEED PLACEMENT

IMPACTS STAND ESTABLISHEMT

  • TOO DEEP:

    • Increased soil impedance pressure

    • reduced gas exchange

    • risk of water logging and or crusting effect

  • TOO SHALLLOW:

    • risk of insufficient moisture for imbibition

    • risk of high temperature injury

Lateral placement

Depth placement

Depth: 3 times the seed width


Stand establishment influencing factors

OVER SEEDING CAN CAUSE PROBLEMS WITH UNIFORMITY/QUALITY

Poor in-row spacing


Establishment phase ii

Establishment- Phase II

PHASE 2

2. Seed germination

& emergence


Germination

GERMINATION

  • The process by which a viable(living) seed imbibes water, triggering respiration, protein synthesis and other metabolic activities which cause radicle emergence.


Germination1

GERMINATION

Seeds are considered to have germinated once radicle emergence has occurred

Germinated seed

(Radicles emergenced)


Gernimation environmental factors

GERNIMATION (ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS)

  • Moisture

    • Seed content

    • Soil content

  • Temperature

  • Oxygen/gas exchange


Seed moisture content

SEED MOISTURE CONTENT

  • Seeds stored 4 - 5 % moisture content

  • Water needed to active metabolic processes

  • Excess moisture

    • inhibits gas exchange(stops metabolic processes)

    • leakage of sugars, organic and amino acids

    • increase pathogen susceptibility(substrate)


Oxygen gas exchange

Oxygen & Gas Exchange

  • Seeds are living organisms.

  • Oxygen needed in metabolic process for germination to occur in vegetables

  • Water logged soils force oxygen out of soil microclimate and stops processes

    • can cause physiological breakdown

    • decay as a result of pathogenic attack


Moisture germination

Moisture & Germination

  • Moisture stress

    • The greater the deficit the slower the germination and radicle emergence

    • Greater negative effect on seed with poor vigor

  • More advanced germination the greater the impact of moisture stress

    • some evidence for cycling wetting and drying prior to planting enhances germination.


Germination soil physical properties

GERMINATION(Soil physical properties)

  • Soil moisture content

  • Soil temperature

  • Soil insect and disease pressure

  • Soil impedance


Factors impacting germination emergence

FACTORS IMPACTING GERMINATION & EMERGENCE

  • Soil temperature


Temperature germination

TEMPERATURE & GERMINATION

  • Generally the higher the temperature the better the germination for most vegetables

    • warm temperatures increases respiration rate and other metabolic processes

  • Each species has an optimum temperature range above or below which germination is reduced or inhibited

    • temperature impact pathogen activity which can have a detrimental effect on germination


Influence of soil temperature on germination

INFLUENCE OF SOIL TEMPERATURE ON GERMINATION


Influence of soil temperature on emergence

INFLUENCE OF SOIL TEMPERATURE ON EMERGENCE


Soil to seed contact

SOIL TO SEED CONTACT

  • Onset of germination delayed at soil matrix potentials

  • Highest germination % between -0.3 & -0.1

  • Soil matrix potentials outside of this range – DELAYED GERMINATION


Soil to seed contact1

SOIL TO SEED CONTACT

  • Germination ultimately determined by:

    • the impedance of the soil matrix

      • due to surface and colloidal forces

    • the contact of the seed with soil moisture

      • irrespective of the initial difference between the water potential of the seed interior and the soil


Soil factors impacting germination emergence

SOIL FACTORS IMPACTING GERMINATION & EMERGENCE

  • Soil impedance – the pressure or barrier effect soil has on emergence.


Soil impedance

SOIL IMPEDANCE

  • Emergence force of seed hypocotyls will determine how effective a specie is in over coming the negative effect of soil impedance.

  • Small seeded crops such as carrots lack good emergence force

  • Crust and/or deep planting very disastrous to crops lacking good emergence force


Emergence vigor

EMERGENCE VIGOR

  • The ability of a hypocotyls to rapidly emerge through the soil profile and emerge above the soil surface.


Factors impacting germination emergence1

FACTORS IMPACTING GERMINATION & EMERGENCE

  • Soil insect and disease pressure


Establishment phase iii

Establishment- Phase III

Seedling establishment

PHASE3


Seedling establishment

SEEDLING ESTABLISHMENT

  • The time from seedling emergence from the soil until 2 – 4 true leaf stage

    • Impacted by

      • Insects

      • Diseases

      • Soil moisture and temperature

      • Wind Desiccation

      • Sand basting

      • Hail

      • Chemical injury


Stand establishment goal

STAND ESTABLISHMENTGOAL

  • TO REDUCE THE TIME REQUIRED FOR SEED GERMINATION TO SEEDLING ESTABLISHMENT


Stand establishment influencing factors

n

3. Seedling establishment

STAND ESTABLISHMENT

2. Seed germination

& emergence

  • Seed bed

  • preparation/planting


3 components of stand establishment

3 COMPONENTS OF STAND ESTABLISHMENT

  • Good Soil Conditions

  • Viable Seeds

  • Favorable Microclimate


Stand establishment influencing factors

GOOD SOIL

CONDITIONS

(COMPOENT # 1)


Ideal seed bed soil conditions

IDEAL SEED BED SOIL CONDITIONS

  • Well pulverized

  • Free of clods and plant residue

  • Firm and level

  • Provide good soil to seed contact


Means of achieving good soil to seed contact

MEANS of ACHIEVING GOOD SOIL to SEED CONTACT

  • Ovoid working soil when wet

  • Ovoid excessive disking, causes compaction restricts root growth & yield

  • Pulverize soil to the point that it is free of clods and debris

    • Rotovators are ideal implements


Stand establishment influencing factors

VIABLE SEEDS

(COMPOENT # 2)


Seeds

SEEDS

  • Embryonic orNew plants

    • plant in miniature -

  • Contained in a Dispersing structures

    • protected in a cover (the seed coat) until a self sufficient autotrophic organism can be established


Viable seed

VIABLE SEED

  • Seed Having The Ability To Germinate and develop into a seedling once planted!


Factors influencing seed viability

FACTORSINFLUENCING SEED VIABILITY

  • Seed coat (testa)

  • Food reserves

  • Dormancy

  • Condition under which seed produced

  • Storage conditions


Seed coat characteristics

SEED COAT CHARACTERISTICS

  • Surface area

  • Nature of the surface

  • Mucilage content

  • Thickness

  • Porosity


Stand establishment influencing factors

  • Thickness or Porosity

    • can impede water uptake

    • restrict radicle emergence

    • impact gas exchange

      • These then interact to slow or stop respiration and other metabolic processes associated with germination


Seed food reserves

SEED FOOD RESERVES

  • Quantity determined by the quality of the seed crop

    • Growing conditions

    • Harvest

    • Storage


Conditions under which seed crop is grown

CONDITIONS UNDER WHICH SEED CROP IS GROWN

  • Stressed plants are weak plants which in turn produce unviable or poor germinating seed


Seed dormancy

SEED DORMANCY

  • The failure of seed to germinate even under apparently favorable conditions

    • Due to a inherent blocking mechanism within the seed


Seed dormancy1

SEED DORMANCY

  • Causes:

    • Chilling requirement

    • Excessive temperature

    • Inhibitors

    • Seed coat thickness


Stand establishment influencing factors

FAVORABLE

ENVIRONMENT

(COMPOENT # 3)


Root zone microclimate post germination temperature moiusture stress

ROOT ZONE MICROCLIMATE (POST GERMINATION TEMPERATURE & MOIUSTURE STRESS)

  • Radicle injury or death

  • Hypocotol injury or death

  • No, or poor or uneven stands

  • reduced yield


Influence temperature on early growth

INFLUENCE TEMPERATURE ON EARLY GROWTH


Stand establishment influencing factors

INFLUENCE

OF

MICROCLIMATE

ON

STAND ESTABLISHMENT

Covered

Trenches

Fruit nearing maturity

No fruit

Non Covered

Std. beds


Seeding rate

SEEDING RATE

  • Inadequate rates, poor stands due to

    lack of potential seedlings emerging

  • Excessive rates, over crowding weak spindly plants


Summary major factors impacting good stand establishment

SUMMARY: Major factors impacting good stand establishment

  • Seed Quality

  • Proper Seedbed Preparation

  • Seedbed Moisture

  • Soil temperature

  • Soil impedance

  • Soil borne pathogens


Stand establishment influencing factors

“The

sins of planting

will

haunt

you

all

season !”

A

Department

Of

Horticultural Sciences

Program

ATM


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