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Unit 6 Part I. Absolutism and Scientific Revolution Chapters 5 and 6. Absolute Rule. Absolutism: Period when a series of European monarchs who ruled alone and increased the power of their central government. Absolute Rulers: Centralization of power

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Unit 6 part i

Unit 6 Part I

Absolutism and Scientific Revolution

Chapters 5 and 6


Absolute rule
Absolute Rule

Absolutism: Period when a series of European monarchs who ruled alone and increased the power of their central government


  • Absolute Rulers:

    • Centralization of power

    • Many believed in concept of divine right!


England s absolute monarchy
England’s Absolute Monarchy

Fight for the throne—Wars of the Roses

Lancaster (Red) vs. York (White)

Henry Tudor (Red) wins = Henry VII


Under elizabeth
Under Elizabeth

  • England was invaded by Philip II b/c he had grown impatient waiting for England to become Catholic again.



Queen elizabeth i
Queen Elizabeth I

  • Died with no heirs

  • Cousins in Scotland – Stuart Dynasty—now begins


James i 1603 1625
James I 1603-1625

Tensions with Parliament – Divine Right

Remembered for giving the Puritans an English translation of the Bible (King James Version)


Magna carta
Magna Carta

  • King John was forced to sign this document in 1215!

  • Limited the king’s power & protected the baron’s rights


Charles i 1625 1649
Charles I –1625-1649

  • Son of James I

  • Divine Right

  • Dissolved Parliament for 11 years



Charles i cont
Charles I cont…

English Civil War—Charles led an army (Cavaliers) and invaded Parliament

Cromwell (Puritan) leader of the Roundheads (supporters of Parliament) defeated the royalists/Cavaliers twice





Oliver cromwell 1653 1658
Oliver Cromwell-1653-1658

Tried to establish a Republic with a constitution (people would elect leader)

Eventually dissolves Parliament—ruled as military dictator


Charles ii 1660 1685
Charles II 1660-1685

  • Restoration!!! Restored the Monarchy

  • Gave in to Parliament b/c of his Dad

  • Got New York from the Dutch


James ii 1685 1688
James II 1685-1688

  • Catholic—remarries has a Catholic son

  • His daughter—Mary is Protestant



William and mary 1688 1694 mary 1702 william
William and Mary1688-1694 (Mary) 1702 (William)

James II was not liked, but they could not execute him…they knew when he died Mary (daughter/Protestant) would inherit the thrown. His son would rule first (Catholic) Parliament decided to invite Mary and William (husband) to invade country 1688



William and mary cont
William and Mary cont…

  • First dual monarchy

  • They work well with Parliament and accept limited power (Limited Constitutional Monarchy-monarchs power limited by a constitution)

  • Parliament will pass many laws—protecting the rights of individuals


English parliament
English Parliament

Habeas Corpus—individual has the right to be seen by a judge w/in a reasonable amount of time either to be released or charged w/a crime


English Bill of Rights-monarch could not interfere in the elections or operations of Parliament …and some basic rights to citizens


English parliament cont
English Parliament cont… elections or operations of Parliament …and some basic rights to citizens

Act of Toleration-Religious freedom to dissenters (not Anglican)


1707 Act of Union—England and Scotland join together elections or operations of Parliament …and some basic rights to citizens


Act of Settlement—next ruler will have to be Protestant elections or operations of Parliament …and some basic rights to citizens


Anne sister of mary 1701 1714
Anne (sister of Mary) 1701-1714 elections or operations of Parliament …and some basic rights to citizens

  • Estab. A cabinet (group of advisors)

  • Leader of the Cabinet=Prime Minister


Anne con d
Anne con’d elections or operations of Parliament …and some basic rights to citizens

  • Act of Union (1707)

Joined Scotland and England into the United Kingdom

Last of the Stuart dynasty


Away from england
Away from England elections or operations of Parliament …and some basic rights to citizens

Colonies

French and Indian War

American Revolution


French indian war
French & Indian War elections or operations of Parliament …and some basic rights to citizens


The american revolution
The American Revolution elections or operations of Parliament …and some basic rights to citizens


Treaty of paris proclamation of 1763
Treaty of Paris Proclamation of 1763 elections or operations of Parliament …and some basic rights to citizens

  • Treaty of Paris


Treaty of Paris elections or operations of Parliament …and some basic rights to citizens

Proclamation of 1763

  • Ended the American Revolutionary War

  • King George III of England forbid American settlers to go beyond the line along the Appalachians. (After England claimed the French lands from the French and Indian War)


France
France elections or operations of Parliament …and some basic rights to citizens

  • Mid-1500s—France destroyed by religious conflicts btwn Huguenots and Catholics


St bartholomew s day
St. Bartholomew’s Day elections or operations of Parliament …and some basic rights to citizens

King of France attempted to kill the leader’s of the Huguenots…once the killing started mobs of Catholic Parisians started to began a general massacre of Huguenots. (the king’s sister, Margaret, had just married Henry of Navarre—the leader of the Huguenots)


1589—Henry of Navarre became Henry IV (Bourbon) a Protestant wins the throne helps to resolve chaos in France


  • Converts to Catholicism Protestant wins the throne helps to resolve chaos in France

  • Edict of Nantes: Allowed the Huguenots to practice their own religion—Religious Toleration


France cont
France cont… Protestant wins the throne helps to resolve chaos in France

  • 1610—Louis XIII

  • 9 years old

  • Appointed Cardinal Richelieu as chief minister


Strengthened the gov’t Protestant wins the throne helps to resolve chaos in France

  • Destroyed power of the nobles & Huguenots

    • Hand picked his own successor – Mazarin



France cont1
France cont… the strongest European power)

  • 1643—Louis XIV—72 years of rule

  • 5 years old with Mazarin as chief minister until 1661 (23 yrs old then)



Believed in divine right let it happen again

Never used the Estates-General (similar to Parliament)

Took the sun as his symbol—sun=center

SUN KING=center of French nation


France cont2
France cont… let it happen again

  • Louis XIV

    • Strengthened the gov’t

      • Tax collections—intendants (middle class)

      • Army=strongest in Europe

      • Diversified economy: Home-taxes-wealthiest state in Europe

      • Colonies-Furs


France cont3
France cont… let it happen again

  • Louis XIV

    • Extravagant Lifestyle

    • Palace of Versailles (p. 141)

    • Sponsored the Arts


Palace of versailles
Palace of Versailles let it happen again


France cont4
France cont… let it happen again

  • Louis XIV—Setbacks

    • Costly wars—Esp. the War of the Spanish Succession 1700-1713 (France tried to unite France and Spain)




Austria
Austria great grandson inherited the throne as Louis XV

  • Powerful German state and part of the Holy Roman Empire

  • Charles VI was king of Austria and leader of the Hapsburg Family and the H.R.E.


Charles vi
Charles VI great grandson inherited the throne as Louis XV

  • Had no sons; wrote the Pragmatic Sanction to allow daughter, Maria Theresa, to inherit the throne



30 years war cause
30 Years War--Cause it as well, but must marry and husband will be H.R.E.

  • Began over territory, religion & power over the ruling families

  • 1618-1648


Hapsburg triumphs con d
Hapsburg Triumphs con’d it as well, but must marry and husband will be H.R.E.

  • Ferdinand was Catholic so Protestants feared him & revolted

  • Ferdinand II paid his army to plunder/rob German villages

  • Destroyed everything!


30 years war
30 Years War it as well, but must marry and husband will be H.R.E.

  • Hapsburg Triumphs

  • 1st 12 years H. armies from Austria & Spain crushed Protestant troops


30 years war1
30 Years War it as well, but must marry and husband will be H.R.E.

  • Hapsburg Defeats:

  • Sweden drove Haps. Out of Northern Germany


Hapsburg defeats con d
Hapsburg Defeats con’d it as well, but must marry and husband will be H.R.E.

  • Cardinal Richelieu & Mazarin feared Haps more so sent French troops to help!


30 years war2
30 Years War it as well, but must marry and husband will be H.R.E.

  • Peace of Westphalia

  • 1648

  • Weakened Hapsburg states of Spain & Austria

  • Strengthened France by giving it German territory


Peace of westphalia con d
Peace of Westphalia con’d it as well, but must marry and husband will be H.R.E.

  • Made German princes independent of Holy Roman Emperor

  • Ended religious wars in Europe


Maria theresa
Maria Theresa it as well, but must marry and husband will be H.R.E.

  • Charles VI daughter

  • Heir to Hapsburg empire

  • Enemy was Prussia


Prussia
Prussia it as well, but must marry and husband will be H.R.E.

  • Now part of the country of Germany

  • Frederick William—the Great Elector—was founder of the Hohenzollern Family





Prussia cont
Prussia cont… tried to run away

Frederick II—known as the GREAT because he introduced culture to the country and expanded the borders of the country by using the army against Austria and Poland



Russia
Russia Austrian territory

  • Ivan the Terrible was an awful ruler and caused Russia to develop slower than the rest of Europe



Russia cont
Russia cont… of the country elected Michael Romanov to take over

Romanov Dynasty: founded by Michael, and this dynasty will last until 1918 when Nicholas II and his family was assassinated (Anastasia). Longest running dynasty in European history—over 300 years


Nicholas ii
Nicholas II of the country elected Michael Romanov to take over


Russia cont1
Russia cont… of the country elected Michael Romanov to take over

  • Peter the Great—studied in Europe in order to westernize Europe, created city of St. Petersburg “Window to the West”


changed diet, hygiene habits, and dress of Russians, expanded borders by acquiring Siberia, created modern army and won against Sweden to gain access to the Baltic Sea…never won a warm water port!!


Catherine expanded borders by acquiring Siberia, created modern army and won against Sweden to gain access to the Baltic Sea…never won a warm water port!!

The Great


Russia cont2
Russia cont… expanded borders by acquiring Siberia, created modern army and won against Sweden to gain access to the Baltic Sea…never won a warm water port!!

Catherine the Great—German princess

Married Russian Czar…had her husband killed and took over

Took territory away from Poland

Punished serfs

Created schools for girls


Greatest accomplishment—gaining a warm water port by defeating the Ottoman Turks=access to Black Sea for trade w/Europe

Last of great absolute monarchs of the century


Scientific revolution
Scientific Revolution defeating the Ottoman Turks=access to Black Sea for trade w/Europe


Scientific revolution1
Scientific Revolution defeating the Ottoman Turks=access to Black Sea for trade w/Europe

  • With its emphasis on reasoned observation and systematic measurement, the Scientific Revolution changed the way people viewed the world and their place in it!


Remember the medieval view
Remember the Medieval View? defeating the Ottoman Turks=access to Black Sea for trade w/Europe

  • Aristotle

  • Ptolemy

  • Geocentric Theory: earth center of universe

  • Supported this view


Scientific revolution2
Scientific Revolution defeating the Ottoman Turks=access to Black Sea for trade w/Europe

  • Scientific Revolution

  • Ppl were willing to question accepted beliefs


Nicolaus copernicus
Nicolaus Copernicus defeating the Ottoman Turks=access to Black Sea for trade w/Europe

  • Heliocentric Theory: sun-center of universe


Johannes kepler
Johannes Kepler defeating the Ottoman Turks=access to Black Sea for trade w/Europe

  • Continued Brahe’s work & discovered planetary movement

  • Proved this through math!


Kepler con d
Kepler con’d defeating the Ottoman Turks=access to Black Sea for trade w/Europe

  • Copernicus was right!

  • Planets did revolve around the sun


Galileo galilei
Galileo Galilei defeating the Ottoman Turks=access to Black Sea for trade w/Europe

  • Discovered law of the pendulum

  • Built his own telescope used it to support the heliocentric theory


Galileo con d
Galileo con’d defeating the Ottoman Turks=access to Black Sea for trade w/Europe

  • Went aga church teaching & authority, warned not to but did it anyway!

  • Condemned!


Scientific method
Scientific Method defeating the Ottoman Turks=access to Black Sea for trade w/Europe

  • Logical procedure for gathering & testing ideas

  • Developed from previous guys’ work!


Isaac newton
Isaac Newton defeating the Ottoman Turks=access to Black Sea for trade w/Europe

  • Law of universal gravitation

  • Earth & heavens


William harvey
William Harvey defeating the Ottoman Turks=access to Black Sea for trade w/Europe

  • Discovered circulation of the blood!


Edward jenner
Edward Jenner defeating the Ottoman Turks=access to Black Sea for trade w/Europe

  • World’s 1st vaccination

  • Small pox vaccine!


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