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Unit 6 Part I. Absolutism and Scientific Revolution Chapters 5 and 6. Absolute Rule. Absolutism: Period when a series of European monarchs who ruled alone and increased the power of their central government. Absolute Rulers: Centralization of power

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Unit 6 Part I

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Unit 6 Part I

Absolutism and Scientific Revolution

Chapters 5 and 6


Absolute Rule

Absolutism: Period when a series of European monarchs who ruled alone and increased the power of their central government


  • Absolute Rulers:

    • Centralization of power

    • Many believed in concept of divine right!


England’s Absolute Monarchy

Fight for the throne—Wars of the Roses

Lancaster (Red) vs. York (White)

Henry Tudor (Red) wins = Henry VII


Under Elizabeth

  • England was invaded by Philip II b/c he had grown impatient waiting for England to become Catholic again.


  • 1588 Sp. Armada-”Prot. Wind”

  • Elizabeth was successful in defeating the Spanish Armada!


Queen Elizabeth I

  • Died with no heirs

  • Cousins in Scotland – Stuart Dynasty—now begins


James I 1603-1625

Tensions with Parliament – Divine Right

Remembered for giving the Puritans an English translation of the Bible (King James Version)


Magna Carta

  • King John was forced to sign this document in 1215!

  • Limited the king’s power & protected the baron’s rights


Charles I –1625-1649

  • Son of James I

  • Divine Right

  • Dissolved Parliament for 11 years


  • Irritated the Puritans –Many left=Great Migration

  • Ireland Revolted, Scotland invaded-Charles needed Parliament


Charles I cont…

English Civil War—Charles led an army (Cavaliers) and invaded Parliament

Cromwell (Puritan) leader of the Roundheads (supporters of Parliament) defeated the royalists/Cavaliers twice


Invasion of Parliament


  • Royalists vs Puritans

  • Charles I vs Oliver Cromwell

  • Charles I tried for treason and beheaded!!


Oliver Cromwell


Oliver Cromwell-1653-1658

Tried to establish a Republic with a constitution (people would elect leader)

Eventually dissolves Parliament—ruled as military dictator


Charles II 1660-1685

  • Restoration!!! Restored the Monarchy

  • Gave in to Parliament b/c of his Dad

  • Got New York from the Dutch


James II 1685-1688

  • Catholic—remarries has a Catholic son

  • His daughter—Mary is Protestant


  • Wanted Absolute Authority

  • Eventually fled the country after invasion by William of Orange (son-in-law)


William and Mary1688-1694 (Mary) 1702 (William)

James II was not liked, but they could not execute him…they knew when he died Mary (daughter/Protestant) would inherit the thrown. His son would rule first (Catholic) Parliament decided to invite Mary and William (husband) to invade country 1688


  • Glorious Revolution 1688—no bloodshed—James II fled


William and Mary cont…

  • First dual monarchy

  • They work well with Parliament and accept limited power (Limited Constitutional Monarchy-monarchs power limited by a constitution)

  • Parliament will pass many laws—protecting the rights of individuals


English Parliament

Habeas Corpus—individual has the right to be seen by a judge w/in a reasonable amount of time either to be released or charged w/a crime


English Bill of Rights-monarch could not interfere in the elections or operations of Parliament …and some basic rights to citizens


English Parliament cont…

Act of Toleration-Religious freedom to dissenters (not Anglican)


1707 Act of Union—England and Scotland join together


Act of Settlement—next ruler will have to be Protestant


Anne (sister of Mary)1701-1714

  • Estab. A cabinet (group of advisors)

  • Leader of the Cabinet=Prime Minister


Anne con’d

  • Act of Union (1707)

Joined Scotland and England into the United Kingdom

Last of the Stuart dynasty


Away from England

Colonies

French and Indian War

American Revolution


French & Indian War


The American Revolution


Treaty of Paris Proclamation of 1763

  • Treaty of Paris


Treaty of Paris

Proclamation of 1763

  • Ended the American Revolutionary War

  • King George III of England forbid American settlers to go beyond the line along the Appalachians. (After England claimed the French lands from the French and Indian War)


France

  • Mid-1500s—France destroyed by religious conflicts btwn Huguenots and Catholics


St. Bartholomew’s Day

King of France attempted to kill the leader’s of the Huguenots…once the killing started mobs of Catholic Parisians started to began a general massacre of Huguenots. (the king’s sister, Margaret, had just married Henry of Navarre—the leader of the Huguenots)


1589—Henry of Navarre became Henry IV (Bourbon) a Protestant wins the throne helps to resolve chaos in France


  • Converts to Catholicism

  • Edict of Nantes: Allowed the Huguenots to practice their own religion—Religious Toleration


France cont…

  • 1610—Louis XIII

  • 9 years old

  • Appointed Cardinal Richelieu as chief minister


Strengthened the gov’t

  • Destroyed power of the nobles & Huguenots

    • Hand picked his own successor – Mazarin


  • (wanted to turn France into an absolute monarchy and make it the strongest European power)


France cont…

  • 1643—Louis XIV—72 years of rule

  • 5 years old with Mazarin as chief minister until 1661 (23 yrs old then)


  • Rebellion broke out when he was a child and vowed to never let it happen again


Believed in divine right

Never used the Estates-General (similar to Parliament)

Took the sun as his symbol—sun=center

SUN KING=center of French nation


France cont…

  • Louis XIV

    • Strengthened the gov’t

      • Tax collections—intendants (middle class)

      • Army=strongest in Europe

      • Diversified economy: Home-taxes-wealthiest state in Europe

      • Colonies-Furs


France cont…

  • Louis XIV

    • Extravagant Lifestyle

    • Palace of Versailles (p. 141)

    • Sponsored the Arts


Palace of Versailles


France cont…

  • Louis XIV—Setbacks

    • Costly wars—Esp. the War of the Spanish Succession 1700-1713 (France tried to unite France and Spain)


  • Persecution of the Huguenots: revoked the Edict of Nantes—Huguenots fled and hurt the economy


  • Louis XIV outlived his sons and grandsons died in 1715—his great grandson inherited the throne as Louis XV


Austria

  • Powerful German state and part of the Holy Roman Empire

  • Charles VI was king of Austria and leader of the Hapsburg Family and the H.R.E.


Charles VI

  • Had no sons; wrote the Pragmatic Sanction to allow daughter, Maria Theresa, to inherit the throne


  • Sanction signed by other European nations and Pope honored it as well, but must marry and husband will be H.R.E.


30 Years War--Cause

  • Began over territory, religion & power over the ruling families

  • 1618-1648


Hapsburg Triumphs con’d

  • Ferdinand was Catholic so Protestants feared him & revolted

  • Ferdinand II paid his army to plunder/rob German villages

  • Destroyed everything!


30 Years War

  • Hapsburg Triumphs

  • 1st 12 years H. armies from Austria & Spain crushed Protestant troops


30 Years War

  • Hapsburg Defeats:

  • Sweden drove Haps. Out of Northern Germany


Hapsburg Defeats con’d

  • Cardinal Richelieu & Mazarin feared Haps more so sent French troops to help!


30 Years War

  • Peace of Westphalia

  • 1648

  • Weakened Hapsburg states of Spain & Austria

  • Strengthened France by giving it German territory


Peace of Westphalia con’d

  • Made German princes independent of Holy Roman Emperor

  • Ended religious wars in Europe


Maria Theresa

  • Charles VI daughter

  • Heir to Hapsburg empire

  • Enemy was Prussia


Prussia

  • Now part of the country of Germany

  • Frederick William—the Great Elector—was founder of the Hohenzollern Family


  • Hohenzollerns ruling family in Prussia

  • H: had the best standing army

  • H: militaristic society


  • Frederick William I was the first king of Prussia

  • Started the military and Potsdam Guard, personal body guards, had to be 7 feet tall


  • Son’s friend is beheaded because Frederick II and friend tried to run away

  • Frederick II had to watch


Prussia cont…

Frederick II—known as the GREAT because he introduced culture to the country and expanded the borders of the country by using the army against Austria and Poland


  • He enabled Prussia to become a major European power—seized Austrian territory


Russia

  • Ivan the Terrible was an awful ruler and caused Russia to develop slower than the rest of Europe


  • After Ivan’s death and the death of his son, the leaders of the country elected Michael Romanov to take over


Russia cont…

Romanov Dynasty: founded by Michael, and this dynasty will last until 1918 when Nicholas II and his family was assassinated (Anastasia). Longest running dynasty in European history—over 300 years


Nicholas II


Russia cont…

  • Peter the Great—studied in Europe in order to westernize Europe, created city of St. Petersburg “Window to the West”


changed diet, hygiene habits, and dress of Russians, expanded borders by acquiring Siberia, created modern army and won against Sweden to gain access to the Baltic Sea…never won a warm water port!!


Catherine

The Great


Russia cont…

Catherine the Great—German princess

Married Russian Czar…had her husband killed and took over

Took territory away from Poland

Punished serfs

Created schools for girls


Greatest accomplishment—gaining a warm water port by defeating the Ottoman Turks=access to Black Sea for trade w/Europe

Last of great absolute monarchs of the century


Scientific Revolution


Scientific Revolution

  • With its emphasis on reasoned observation and systematic measurement, the Scientific Revolution changed the way people viewed the world and their place in it!


Remember the Medieval View?

  • Aristotle

  • Ptolemy

  • Geocentric Theory: earth center of universe

  • Supported this view


Scientific Revolution

  • Scientific Revolution

  • Ppl were willing to question accepted beliefs


Nicolaus Copernicus

  • Heliocentric Theory: sun-center of universe


Johannes Kepler

  • Continued Brahe’s work & discovered planetary movement

  • Proved this through math!


Kepler con’d

  • Copernicus was right!

  • Planets did revolve around the sun


Galileo Galilei

  • Discovered law of the pendulum

  • Built his own telescope used it to support the heliocentric theory


Galileo con’d

  • Went aga church teaching & authority, warned not to but did it anyway!

  • Condemned!


Scientific Method

  • Logical procedure for gathering & testing ideas

  • Developed from previous guys’ work!


Isaac Newton

  • Law of universal gravitation

  • Earth & heavens


William Harvey

  • Discovered circulation of the blood!


Edward Jenner

  • World’s 1st vaccination

  • Small pox vaccine!


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