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Why chemistry, why again?. You are made up of biomolecules! Your biomolecules are built from food you eat Your body breaks them down and rearranges them to give you: Energy and Building blocks for proteins, carbohydrates, lipids and Nucleic acids (DNA, RNA). You are what you eat!.

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you are what you eat

You are made up of biomolecules!

  • Your biomolecules are built from food you eat
  • Your body breaks them down and rearranges them to give you:
    • Energyand
    • Building blocks for
        • proteins,
        • carbohydrates,
        • lipids and
        • Nucleic acids (DNA, RNA)
You are what you eat!
a mixture of biomolecules

Carbohydrates (sugar and starch)

  • Protein
  • Lipids – (fats, oils, cholesterol)
  • Vitamins
  • Minerals (Ca, PO4-2, Se, Fe, Ni, Zn, etc)
  • H2O

and

  • Energy (stored in chemical bonds)
a mixture of biomolecules
let s review the basics atoms
Let’s review the basics - atoms

* phospholipids

** some proteins

atomic structure
Atomic Structure
  • Protons
  • Electrons
  • Neutrons
valence electrons anyone
Valence Electrons Anyone?
  • What are they?
  • How do I figure out how many an atom has?
  • How do I figure out how many an ion has?
slide9

Molecular

Forces

Intramolecular

Forces

Intermolecular

Forces

Ionic Bonds

Covalent

Bonds

Dispersion

Forces

Dipole

Forces

Hydrogen

Bonds

covalent bond polarity

Nonpolar Covalent bonds – equal sharing

      • 0.0 < Electronegativity difference ≤ 0.4
  • Polar Covalent Bond – unequal sharing
      • 0.4 < Electronegativity difference < 1.5
      • Line becomes arrow from positive to negative
Covalent Bond Polarity

Insulin

slide14

Molecular

Forces

Intramolecular

Forces

Inter molecular

Forces

Ionic Bonds

Covalent

Bonds

Dispersion

Forces

Hydrogen

Bonds

Dipole

Forces

dispersion

Weakest intermolecular force

Caused by the motion of electrons

More electrons per molecule, more attraction between molecules; i.e. halogens

Dispersion
intermolecular forces dispersion
Intermolecular Forces - Dispersion

Electrons momentarily gang up on one side of the molecule

  • e.g. bromine is a liquid, whereas iodine is a solid at STP
intermolecular forces hydrogen bonds

Strongest of the intermolecular forces

  • Only molecules with hydrogen in them
  • BIG role in living organisms!!!
Intermolecular Forces – Hydrogen Bonds
water

H2O

  • What’s the H, what’s the O?
  • Why the 2?
  • Hydrogen Bonding – a big deal!
    • solubility (water is the universal solvent)
    • cohesion
    • adhesion
    • heat retention
Water
amazing water properties

Solubility

  • Capillary Action
  • Heat of Vaporization
  • Heat of Fusion
  • Surface Tension
  • Density Differences
Amazing Water Properties
water properties capillary action
Water Properties- Capillary Action

425 ft

Paper Towels and Redwood Trees

all together now
All together now

Molecular

Forces

Intramolecular

Forces

Intermolecular

Forces

Ionic Bonds

Covalent

Bonds

Dispersion

Forces

Dipole

Forces

Hydrogen

Bonds

ad