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Why chemistry, why again?. You are made up of biomolecules! Your biomolecules are built from food you eat Your body breaks them down and rearranges them to give you: Energy and Building blocks for proteins, carbohydrates, lipids and Nucleic acids (DNA, RNA). You are what you eat!.

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You are what you eat

  • You are made up of biomolecules!

  • Your biomolecules are built from food you eat

  • Your body breaks them down and rearranges them to give you:

    • Energyand

    • Building blocks for

      • proteins,

      • carbohydrates,

      • lipids and

      • Nucleic acids (DNA, RNA)

You are what you eat!



A mixture of biomolecules

  • Carbohydrates (sugar and starch)

  • Protein

  • Lipids – (fats, oils, cholesterol)

  • Vitamins

  • Minerals (Ca, PO4-2, Se, Fe, Ni, Zn, etc)

  • H2O

    and

  • Energy (stored in chemical bonds)

a mixture of biomolecules


Let s review the basics atoms
Let’s review the basics - atoms

* phospholipids

** some proteins


Atomic structure
Atomic Structure

  • Protons

  • Electrons

  • Neutrons


Valence electrons anyone
Valence Electrons Anyone?

  • What are they?

  • How do I figure out how many an atom has?

  • How do I figure out how many an ion has?



Molecular

Forces

Intramolecular

Forces

Intermolecular

Forces

Ionic Bonds

Covalent

Bonds

Dispersion

Forces

Dipole

Forces

Hydrogen

Bonds



Covalent bond polarity

  • Nonpolar Covalent bonds – equal sharing

    • 0.0 < Electronegativity difference ≤ 0.4

  • Polar Covalent Bond – unequal sharing

    • 0.4 < Electronegativity difference < 1.5

    • Line becomes arrow from positive to negative

  • Covalent Bond Polarity

    Insulin



    Molecular polarity examples

    CH4

    CO2

    NH3

    H2O

    Molecular Polarity examples


    Molecular

    Forces

    Intramolecular

    Forces

    Inter molecular

    Forces

    Ionic Bonds

    Covalent

    Bonds

    Dispersion

    Forces

    Hydrogen

    Bonds

    Dipole

    Forces



    Dispersion

    Weakest intermolecular force

    Caused by the motion of electrons

    More electrons per molecule, more attraction between molecules; i.e. halogens

    Dispersion


    Intermolecular forces dispersion
    Intermolecular Forces - Dispersion

    Electrons momentarily gang up on one side of the molecule

    • e.g. bromine is a liquid, whereas iodine is a solid at STP


    Intermolecular forces dispersion1
    Intermolecular Forces - Dispersion


    Intermolecular forces hydrogen bonds

    • Strongest of the intermolecular forces

    • Only molecules with hydrogen in them

    • BIG role in living organisms!!!

    Intermolecular Forces – Hydrogen Bonds




    Water

    • H2O

    • What’s the H, what’s the O?

    • Why the 2?

    • Hydrogen Bonding – a big deal!

      • solubility (water is the universal solvent)

      • cohesion

      • adhesion

      • heat retention

    Water


    Amazing water properties

    • Solubility

    • Capillary Action

    • Heat of Vaporization

    • Heat of Fusion

    • Surface Tension

    • Density Differences

    Amazing Water Properties


    Water properties solubility
    Water Properties - Solubility

    Life’s necessity


    Water properties capillary action
    Water Properties- Capillary Action

    425 ft

    Paper Towels and Redwood Trees






    All together now
    All together now

    Molecular

    Forces

    Intramolecular

    Forces

    Intermolecular

    Forces

    Ionic Bonds

    Covalent

    Bonds

    Dispersion

    Forces

    Dipole

    Forces

    Hydrogen

    Bonds


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