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Genetics. I . Introduction. A. History. 1. C. Darwin & A. Wallace  Blending. 2. G. Mendel & F. Unger  Mixing. 3. W. Sutton  Chromosomal Theory of Inheritance. 4. T. Morgan  Genes & Chromosomes plus linkage groups. 5. A. Sturtevant  Genetic Mapping.

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1. C. Darwin & A. Wallace  Blending

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1 c darwin a wallace blending

Genetics

I. Introduction

A. History

1. C. Darwin & A. Wallace  Blending

2. G. Mendel & F. Unger  Mixing

3. W. Sutton  Chromosomal Theory of Inheritance

4. T. Morgan  Genes & Chromosomes plus linkage groups

5. A. Sturtevant  Genetic Mapping

6. F. Griffith  Hereditary molecule

7. A. Jefferys  DNA finger printing

8. 2003  human DNA sequenced


1 c darwin a wallace blending

II. Mendelian Genetics

A. Experimental Design

1. Monohybrid Cross

a. Definition

b. Terms

i. Self vs. Cross Fertilization

ii. Traits vs. Characteristics

Figure 9.2D


1 c darwin a wallace blending

c. Process

Figure 9.2C

Figure 9.3A


1 c darwin a wallace blending

Figure 9.4

Figure 9.3B

d. Principle  “Law of Segregation”


1 c darwin a wallace blending

e. Terms

i. Gene versus Allele

iii. Dominant versus Recessive

iv. Genotype versus Phenotype

ii. Homozygous versus Heterozygous


1 c darwin a wallace blending

f. Testcross

Figure 9.6


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2. Dihybrid Cross

a. Definition

i. Start by figuring out the parents genotypes

b. Process

ii. Then how many and type of gametes

Figure 9.5A


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Practice

Dihybrid Heterozygous cross =

AaBb X AaBb

Gametes AaBb = AB, Ab, aB, & ab for both

Phenotypic ratio= 9:3:3:1, Genotypic ratio= 1:1:2:2:4:2:2:1:1

Dihybrid Heterozygous cross Homozygous Dominant =

AaBb X AABB

Gametes AaBb = AB, Ab, aB, & ab; AABB= AB only

Phenotypic ratio = all dominant, Genotypic ratio = 1:1:1:1

c. Principle  “Law of Independent Assortment”


1 c darwin a wallace blending

III. Variation on Mendel

A. Dominance

1. Complete

2. Co-dominance

AA

aa

Aa


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3. Incomplete dominance

Figure 9.11A


1 c darwin a wallace blending

B. Gene Interactions

1. Multiple Alleles

2. Pleitrophy

Figure 9.13B

Figure 9.12

3. Penetrance


1 c darwin a wallace blending

C. Beyond Mendel

1. Epistasis

2. Polygenic

Figure 9.14


1 c darwin a wallace blending

IV. Classical Genetics

A. History

1. R. Punnet & W. Bateson  1908

Figure 9.7


1 c darwin a wallace blending

2. T. Morgan  Genes & Chromosomes, Karyotyping, plus linkage groups

a. Drosophila melanogaster

WHY?

Figure 9.18C


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b. Genetic Recombination

Figure 9.18A

Figure 9.18C


1 c darwin a wallace blending

3. A. Sturtevant

a. Genetic Mapping

Based on frequency of expression of traits showing together

Figure 9.19A

Figure 9.19B

Figure 9.18C


1 c darwin a wallace blending

B. Sex Linkage

1. Sex Linked Inheritance

Figure 9.20A

Figure 9.20 B - E

Figure 15.7


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2. Barr Bodies

Figure 11.2B


1 c darwin a wallace blending

V. Detection of Problems

A. Techniques

1. Karyotyping

2. Amniocentesis == Cellular and Chemical Analysis

Figure 9.10A


1 c darwin a wallace blending

3. Ultrasound

Figure 9.10B


1 c darwin a wallace blending

4. Chorionic Villi Sampling == Cellular and Chemical Analysis

Figure 9.10A


1 c darwin a wallace blending

5. Fetal Tissue Sampling


1 c darwin a wallace blending

6. Pedigree Analysis

Figure 9.8A & B


1 c darwin a wallace blending

Figure 9.22


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