Socio behavioral aspects of emergent forms of communication
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Socio-Behavioral Aspects of Emergent Forms of Communication. Christine Bevc and Sophia Liu Natural Hazards Center University of Colorado at Boulder. October 7, 2005 UCIrvine-RESCUE. Disaster Research. Emerged following the 1920 study of the Halifax disaster

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Socio behavioral aspects of emergent forms of communication

Socio-Behavioral Aspectsof Emergent Forms of Communication

Christine Bevc and Sophia Liu

Natural Hazards Center

University of Colorado at Boulder

October 7, 2005

UCIrvine-RESCUE


Disaster research

Disaster Research

  • Emerged following the 1920 study of the Halifax disaster

  • Developed after WWII with the Cold War and threat of nuclear exchange

  • 1970s – First assessment

  • 25 years later – Second assessment

October 7, 2005

UCIrvine-RESCUE


Definitions

Definitions

  • Disasters

    • Events concentrated in time and space

  • Hazards

    • Extreme natural events that may affect different places at different times

    • Disasters occur when hazards combine with vulnerability

    • Hazard + Vulnerability = Disaster

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Vulnerability

Vulnerability

  • Progression from root causes, dynamic pressures, and unsafe conditions

  • Women

  • Children

  • Elderly

  • Minorities

  • Also vulnerability is created by

    • Language

    • Social and economic inequality

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Types of disasters

Types of Disasters

  • Natural

  • Technological/”Man-made”

  • Human-Induced

  • Should focus rather on more abstract properties of disasters

  • Look at how the public, organizations, and communities respond to events

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Research areas

Behavior

Communication

Predictions/Warning Systems

Emergency management

Engineering

GIS/Remote Sensing

Impacts

Land use/planning

Mitigation

Preparedness

Recovery

Relief and rehabilitation

Technological aids

Theory

Vulnerability

Gender

Societal influences

Research Areas

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New orleans

New Orleans

  • Established by French in 1718

  • Entered the US in 1802 – Louisiana Purchase

  • Port city

  • Diversity – Racial and economic

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Disaster subculture

Disaster Subculture

  • Adjustments used by residents to cope with past and future disasters

    • 1965 – Hurricane Betsy (4)

    • 1969 – Hurricane Camille (5)

    • 1992 – Hurricane Andrew (4)

    • 2004 – Hurricane Pam

    • 2004 – Hurricane Ivan ()

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Scenarios predictions

Scenarios/Predictions

  • 2001 Scientific American

  • 2002 Times-Picayune

  • 2004 National Geographic

  • 2004 Natural Hazards Observer

  • 2001 FEMA Report*

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Hurricane katrina

Hurricane Katrina

October 7, 2005

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Hurricane katrina1

Hurricane Katrina

  • Largest dislocation of the US population in 150 years

  • 95,316 evacuees in 863 shelters throughout the country

  • Every state has declared a state of emergency

  • 3rd Deadliest Storm in US History

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Communication in the aftermath

Communication in the Aftermath

  • Vital when infrastructures are down

  • Formal communications

    • High-level emergency responders

  • Informal communications

    • Grass roots level of the public

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Emergent forms of communication

Emergent Forms of Communication

  • Handheld devices and mobile phones

    • Email, SMS, MMS

  • Internet

    • Forums, blogs, wikis, podcasting

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Emergent uses in recent crises

Emergent Uses in Recent Crises

  • 2001 SARS epidemic in China (Law & Peng 2004)

  • December 26, 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami

  • July 7, 2005 London Tube bombings

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Response to hurricane katrina

Response to Hurricane Katrina

  • Blogs provided detailed info of neighborhoods

  • Missing persons websites

  • Disorganization of infrastructure at local/state/federal level

  • Various forms of citizen journalism or participatory journalism

  • Democratization of the news process

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Previous communication

Previous Communication

  • Radio communications

  • Ham radios orAmateur Radio Emergency Service (ARES)

  • Television stations

  • News services

  • Message boards

  • Low or no-tech means of communication

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Evolutions of communication and technologies

Evolutions ofCommunication and Technologies

  • The Public

    • Victims, survivors, volunteers, humanitarians, observers, etc.

  • Impacted / Disaster Zones

    • Blurring due to displacement

  • Blurring due to the evolution ofemergent communication tools

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Disaster relief in the post internet age and a call for hardware

“Disaster relief in the post-Internet age, and a call for hardware”

  • Centrality of IT to disaster relief

  • 2 basic social networking problems

    • Rebuilding shattered social networks

    • Weaving permanently displaced families and individuals into existing social networks in new locales

  • Obtain hardware donations

    • Create and host pages of links & info for shelters

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Katrinahelp wiki

KatrinaHelp Wiki

It represents a clear and direct effort at helping coordination, communication, and cooperation for rescue, recovery, and relief efforts.

KatrinaHelp Wiki

http://katrinahelp.info/wiki/index.php/Main_Page

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Craigslist forum on katrina relief

Craigslist Forum on Katrina Relief

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Craigslist job search for katrina

Craigslist Job Search for “Katrina”

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Nola com

NOLA.com

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Scipionus com

Scipionus.com

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Missing persons websites

Missing Persons Websites

  • Hurricane “I’m OK” Registry

  • Hurricane Katrina Survivor Locator

  • Other dozens of sites

  • Is there some type of categorization scheme and temporal analysis with this outdated info?

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Standard universal notification warning systems

Standard & UniversalNotification Warning Systems

  • “All Hazards” response

  • Common Alerting Protocol (CAP)

  • Emergency Email Network

  • Disaster Management Interoperability Services (DMI-Services)

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Future of communication technologies

Future of Communication & Technologies

  • Larger ecology of communication activities by the worldwide public

  • Humanitarian relief in conjunction with notification and warning systems

    • Victims become active participants

  • Encourage openness of communication

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Maybe not what they wanted to hear

“Maybe Not What They Wanted to Hear”

  • How do we leverage digital convergence to get the most capability, reliability and reach for all modes of emergency communication?

  • Need a more dynamic spectrum management to create more efficient ways of organizing, identifying and prioritizing communications

  • Need independent sources of information and planning for our future emergency infrastructure

  • We can no longer afford an intermittent series of post-disaster quick-fix programs for emergency communications

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Reflecting back on recent crises

Reflecting Back on Recent Crises

  • Connect the public, academia, non-profits, and open source communities

  • How feasible is a truly seamless communications network

  • Difficulty of collaborating and replacing existing equipment

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Final thoughts

Final Thoughts

  • What role is IT playing in any of the media reports in the response efforts?

  • What role is the web playing in this? How are those that are computer illiterate getting help or are they seriously disadvantaged?

  • How do you collect data from websites? How do you track them, record data, and analyze this type of data?

  • How can the interface between emergency response agencies and the public be better organized and encourage two-way communication and participation?

October 7, 2005

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Questions

Questions?

[email protected]

[email protected]

October 7, 2005

UCIrvine-RESCUE


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