Semantics and Pragmatics
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Semantics and Pragmatics. Semantics. Definition: The study of meaning in language. Pragmatics The study of how context contributes to meaning in language. Referential Meaning = The labeling of objects, persons, events

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Semantics and Pragmatics

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Semantics and pragmatics

Semantics and Pragmatics


Semantics

Semantics

Definition:

The study of meaning in language.

Pragmatics

The study of how context contributes to meaning in language


Kinds of semantic meaning

Referential Meaning = The labeling of objects, persons, events

Cultural Meaning = reflection of attitudes, values, shared symbols

Situational Relevance = differing forms for different social situations

Interactional Meaning = defines the social status or relationship between speakers

Affective Meaning = emotional tone of meaning

Kinds of Semantic Meaning


Semantic properties

Semantic Properties

Example: Nouns

Semantic Features

1. Count/mass

2 cats but not 2 waters

2. Specific vs. generic

Ann vs. girl

4. animate vs. inanimate

cow vs. rock

5. Masculine vs. feminine

cow vs. bull

6. Human vs. non-human man vs. dog

7. Definite vs. indefinite

the cat vs. a cat


Semantic roles

Semantic Roles

1. Agent 6. Experiencer

2. Patient 7. Instrument

3. Source8. Cause

4. Goal 9. Temporal

5. Location10. Possessor

Amy sent a letter from Paris to her friend in Iowa.

1 2 34

John’s refrigerator is leaking on the floor.

10 1 5


Semantic features

Semantic Features

Verbs

  • ActionsJane ran.

  • Processes The wood dried.

  • Action/processJane dried the wood.

  • StateThe wood is dry.


Semantic concordance

Semantic Concordance

  • Action verbs take agent subjects

  • Process verbs take patient subjects

  • Action/process verbs take agent subject and a patient object .

  • States take patient nouns.


Reference vs sense

Reference vs. Sense

Reference is the direct labeling of an object, person, event, etc.

Intension

Denotative meaning

Sense is the meaning that is assumed around the reference.

Extension

Connotative meaning


The nyms some examples

The “Nyms” Some examples:

Homonyms – flower, flour

Homographs – bank, bank

Synonym

Antonym

relational opposite – buy, sell

gradable – big, small

marked vs. unmarked – man, woman

complementary – dead, alive

Metonyms – Rome, Catholic church

Polysemous – sound investment, sound of music


Truth conditions in sentences

Truth Conditions in Sentences

Paraphrase = two different sentences with the same truth conditions

Thematic Roles

Anomalous – deviates from the rules of sense

Metaphorical – must use imagination to interpret an anomalous sentence.

Idiom – sentence/phrase that has a semantic meaning other than the referential/sense

meaning

Ambiguous – Ex.

The mother of the boy and the girl will arrive soon. (structural)

She is good at catching flies.

(Semantic)


Pragmatics

Pragmatics

Studying Speech in Cultural Context (Ethnographic Study of Speech)

1. Speech Situation (Context)

The social setting in which speech takes place (a party, a religious ceremony, etc.)

2. Speech Act

Minimal unit of speech has a specified function.

  • Speech Event

    A series of interrelated speech acts that

    comprise a unit (Conversation, lecture, joke)

    Presuppositions

    An implied truth that is taken for granted by all parties to a speech act.


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