Ardipithecus ramidus. Hominid who walked bipedally 4.4 mya Discovered in 1992 by Tim White in Aramis, Ethiopia (as yet largely unpublished) Distinct enough to be a new species? ape-like dentition bipedal locomotion overall hominid-like skeleton
A comparison of human and chimpanzee pelves.
Comparison of human and chimpanzee skeletons.
Comparison of dentition in ape, human, and A. afarensis palates.
Skulls of Robust (left) and Gracile (right) Australopithecines.
pelvis, leg, feet, and foramen magnum all indicate bipedalism
4.2 mya, with oldest definite specimen placed at 3.8 mya
first discovered by Don Johanson in 1974 and called “Lucy”
thought to be the “missing link” until A. anamensis was discovered 20 years laterAustralopithecus afarensis
Left: Trail of footprints of A. afarensis made in volcanic ash, discovered by Mary Leakey at Laetoli.
Right: Close-up of footprint at Laetoli
Map of Australopithecus sites in Africa, with a focus on the East African rift valley and limestone caves of South Africa.
Artist’s representation of a Homo habilis band as it might have existed two million years ago.
Photograph of Nariokotome boy, an early Homo erectus found near Lake Turkana, Kenya.
The skull of the classic Neandertal found in 1908 at La Chapelle-aux-Saints.
Artist’s reconstruction of a Cro-Magnon man