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Europe – post Renaissance. After this lecture you should be able to compare/contrast the governments and economic systems of various countries within Europe be able to explain why each country developed different forms of government. Spain.

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europe post renaissance
Europe – post Renaissance

After this lecture you should

be able to compare/contrast the governments and economic systems of various countries within Europe

be able to explain why each country developed different forms of government

  • Great wealth from gold and silver from colonies in the Americas
  • Severe inflation hurt the economy
  • Nobles did not pay taxes. Lower classes had the burden of paying for wars against the English. No middle class developed
  • Manufacturing did not modernize; foreign goods were cheaper
united provinces of the netherlands
United Provinces of the Netherlands
  • Religious toleration
  • Trading empire – waterways and ships
  • Made up of small republics, each led by an elected governor. Merchants had power
  • Absolute monarchy
  • Early rebellions by the nobility failed because the nobles didn’t trust each other, peasants tires of the fighting
  • Louis XIV controlled nobility, had extravegant lifestyle, built Versailles
  • Religious fights between Protestants (Hugenots) and Catholics
france continued
France continued…
  • Louis XIV left the country in debt from wars and Versailles, but with a large army
central europe
Central Europe
  • Page 604
  • Largely rural
  • After the plague there was much land, not much labor, but few cities or towns. Landowners gradually forced peasants into serfdom to increase the agricultural yield
  • Monarchs were weaker, less sense of nationalism
  • Lacked warm-water port (most northern ports freeze and are unusable in the winter)
  • Serfdom like slavery
  • Separation from the west due to Orthodox religion
  • Peter the Great tried some reforms – professional army, secured warm water port
  • Parliament vs monarchy
  • English Civil War: 1642 – 1649
    • Oliver Cromwell and Puritans took over and executed Charles I

Cromwell becomes a dictator

1649 – invaded Ireland and gave Irish land to British soldiers

Died in 1659, England returns to monarcy

england becomes a constitutional monarcy
England becomes a Constitutional Monarcy
  • Bill of Rights – 1689
    • Monarch can’t suspend parliament’s laws
    • Parliament has to approve taxes
    • Freedom of speech within parliament
    • Citizens can petition the king without penalty

Economy – trade, colonies, early manufacturing, agriculture, serdomgone, increasing middle class


Western Europe

Eastern Europe

Largely argricultural

Peasants worked land

Not many cities or industry

Post-plague, landowners saw profit in greater agricultural production

Peasants forced to stay on the land

Serfdom closer to slavery develops

  • Serfs worked in agriculture
  • As cities grew, trade prospered
  • Money –based economy
  • Learning brought back from crusades
  • Post-plague, serfs could leave for the city or demand wages
scientific revolution
Scientific Revolution
  • If you can question the church (Protestant Reformation) you can question scientific “truths”
    • Early “science” based on Aristotle and observation, not on investigation or experiments
    • Science that conflicted with religious teaching was persecuted
    • Mathematic models used to support science
scientific ideas
Scientific Ideas
  • Copernicus – heliocentric universe
  • Galileo – used a telescope and published Copernicus views, persecuted by the church and recanted.
  • Catholic church didn’t admit Galileo was right until 1992!
  • Vesalius – anatomy, circulation of blood
  • Jenner - vaccination
which was the most influential
Which was the most influential?
  • Of the scientific discoveries discussed in chapter 12, which was the most ? Why?
  • What are the most influential scientific discoveries of our time? Why?
  • Are there some scientific discoveries that are difficult to accept? Or that cause controversy? Why?
homework for wednesday
Homework for Wednesday
  • Read pages 629-634, questions 1 and 2