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Europe – post Renaissance. After this lecture you should be able to compare/contrast the governments and economic systems of various countries within Europe be able to explain why each country developed different forms of government. Spain.

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Europe post renaissance
Europe – post Renaissance

After this lecture you should

be able to compare/contrast the governments and economic systems of various countries within Europe

be able to explain why each country developed different forms of government


Spain
Spain

  • Great wealth from gold and silver from colonies in the Americas

  • Severe inflation hurt the economy

  • Nobles did not pay taxes. Lower classes had the burden of paying for wars against the English. No middle class developed

  • Manufacturing did not modernize; foreign goods were cheaper


United provinces of the netherlands
United Provinces of the Netherlands

  • Religious toleration

  • Trading empire – waterways and ships

  • Made up of small republics, each led by an elected governor. Merchants had power


France
France

  • Absolute monarchy

  • Early rebellions by the nobility failed because the nobles didn’t trust each other, peasants tires of the fighting

  • Louis XIV controlled nobility, had extravegant lifestyle, built Versailles

  • Religious fights between Protestants (Hugenots) and Catholics


France continued
France continued…

  • Louis XIV left the country in debt from wars and Versailles, but with a large army


Central europe
Central Europe

  • Page 604

  • Largely rural

  • After the plague there was much land, not much labor, but few cities or towns. Landowners gradually forced peasants into serfdom to increase the agricultural yield

  • Monarchs were weaker, less sense of nationalism


Russia
Russia

  • Lacked warm-water port (most northern ports freeze and are unusable in the winter)

  • Serfdom like slavery

  • Separation from the west due to Orthodox religion

  • Peter the Great tried some reforms – professional army, secured warm water port


England
England

  • Parliament vs monarchy

  • English Civil War: 1642 – 1649

    • Oliver Cromwell and Puritans took over and executed Charles I

      Cromwell becomes a dictator

      1649 – invaded Ireland and gave Irish land to British soldiers

      Died in 1659, England returns to monarcy


England becomes a constitutional monarcy
England becomes a Constitutional Monarcy

  • Bill of Rights – 1689

    • Monarch can’t suspend parliament’s laws

    • Parliament has to approve taxes

    • Freedom of speech within parliament

    • Citizens can petition the king without penalty

      Economy – trade, colonies, early manufacturing, agriculture, serdomgone, increasing middle class


Serfdom
Serfdom

Western Europe

Eastern Europe

Largely argricultural

Peasants worked land

Not many cities or industry

Post-plague, landowners saw profit in greater agricultural production

Peasants forced to stay on the land

Serfdom closer to slavery develops

  • Serfs worked in agriculture

  • As cities grew, trade prospered

  • Money –based economy

  • Learning brought back from crusades

  • Post-plague, serfs could leave for the city or demand wages


Scientific revolution
Scientific Revolution

  • If you can question the church (Protestant Reformation) you can question scientific “truths”

    • Early “science” based on Aristotle and observation, not on investigation or experiments

    • Science that conflicted with religious teaching was persecuted

    • Mathematic models used to support science


Scientific ideas
Scientific Ideas

  • Copernicus – heliocentric universe

  • Galileo – used a telescope and published Copernicus views, persecuted by the church and recanted.

  • Catholic church didn’t admit Galileo was right until 1992!

  • Vesalius – anatomy, circulation of blood

  • Jenner - vaccination


Which was the most influential
Which was the most influential?

  • Of the scientific discoveries discussed in chapter 12, which was the most ? Why?

  • What are the most influential scientific discoveries of our time? Why?

  • Are there some scientific discoveries that are difficult to accept? Or that cause controversy? Why?


Homework for wednesday
Homework for Wednesday

  • Read pages 629-634, questions 1 and 2


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