Fluid, Electrolyte, and Acid-Base Balance. Chapter 26. Body Water Content. Varies with weight, age, and sex: Early embryo (97%) Newborn (77%) Adult male (60%) Adult female (54%) Elderly (45%) Adipose tissue versus skeletal muscle largely determines adult differences.
Exchange between blood and interstitial spaces
Exchange between extracellular fluids and cells
Regulation of Sodium Balance
Regulation of Potassium Balance
Regulation of Calcium and Phosphate Balance
Regulation of Magnesium Balance
Regulation of Anions
Reduces blood pressure and blood volume by inhibiting nearly all events that promote vasoconstriction and sodium and water retention
The regulatory site of potassium is in the renal tubules
Influence of aldosterone
Influence of plasma potassium concentrations
HCl + NaHCO3- H2CO3 + NaCl
HCl + Na2HPO4 NaH2PO4 + NaCl
Most abundant buffering system in the body including intracellular and extracellular compartments.
Carboxyl groups (COOH) and amine groups (NH3) act as either an acid or a base respectively.
Respiratory Buffering System
Renal Buffering System