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Irrigation Water Management. An essential ingredient of irrigation system design operation. VERY important when applying animal waste. John Busch Irrigation Engineer USDA-NRCS 3990 Midway Lane Baker City, OR 97814 541-523-7121 ext 111 [email protected] Basic IWM concepts.

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Presentation Transcript
Irrigation water management
Irrigation Water Management

An essential ingredient of irrigation system

  • design

  • operation

VERY important when applying

animal waste


John Busch

Irrigation Engineer

USDA-NRCS

3990 Midway Lane

Baker City, OR 97814

541-523-7121 ext 111

[email protected]


Basic iwm concepts
Basic IWM concepts

  • WHEN to irrigate ??

  • HOW MUCH water to apply ??

  • HOW MUCH is applied??


Irrigation water management1
Irrigation Water Management

How important ???

Improper IWM can cause INUNDATION!


Irrigation water management2
Irrigation Water Management

How important ???

Improper IWM can leave one HIGh & DRY!


Important point
Important Point…..

Errors in the timing and amount of irrigation applications can be PROBLEMATIC

Potential problems can increase when applying animal waste through an irrigation system


Nrcs iwm job sheet
NRCS IWM Job Sheet

Available on the

Oregon NRCS Engineering Web Site


IWM Plan Specifications

An IWM Plan shall be developed to assist the irrigator or decision-maker in the proper management and application of irrigation water. Factors to be included in the IWM Plan include the following:

  • Statement of objective(s) for the IWM Plan

  • Description of the irrigation system and its components including water supply, water conveyance and application systems, and any water measurement devices.

  • Soils information including available water capacity, depth, and limiting conditions related to irrigation water management.

  • Crop information including crops grown, irrigation water requirements, and physical characteristics including rooting depth.

  • Description of irrigation scheduling and system management including methods for measuring and/or estimating crop water use and soil moisture levels.

  • IWM record keeping requirements of appropriate detail for the IWM objectives. The detail of IWM may be specified as Detailed orBy Irrigation Cycle with the associated level of record keeping as appropriate for the level of detail.

  • IWM review requirements regarding the effectiveness of the IWM Plan and its implementation.


Nrcs iwm plan specifications
NRCS IWM Plan Specifications

  • Statement of objective(s)for the IWM Plan

  • Description of the irrigation system and its components

  • Soils information including available water capacity, depth, and limiting conditions

  • Crop information including crops grown, irrigation water requirements, and physical characteristics


Nrcs iwm plan specifications1
NRCS IWM Plan Specifications

  • Description of irrigation scheduling and system management

  • IWM record keeping requirements of appropriate detail

  • IWM review


Iwm objectives
IWM Objectives

Work with cooperator to

  • Identify needs

  • Specify objectives to meet needs

    Cooperator involvement is important !

    buy-in from the beginning


Irrigation system
Irrigation System

  • Irrigation system characteristics



Irrigation system1
Irrigation System

  • System type

  • Operating characteristics

    Coefficient of Uniformity (CU) data or distribution uniformity (DU) shall be used in selecting sprinkler spacing, nozzle size, and operating pressure

    For pivots: Min CU = 85%

    Fixed-Solid-set, Big Gun and Periodic Move Sprinkler:

    Min CU = 75 % for deep-rooted crops (4 ft +)

    Min CU = 85 % for shallow-rooted crops


Irrigation system2
Irrigation System

  • Water Source(s)

  • Available flow rate and total amount

  • Water Quality

    • Salts (Sodium)

    • Chemicals (Boron)


Soils information
Soils Information

Including

  • Soil characteristics

  • Physical data – depth, limitations, AWC

  • Soil chemistry – EC, SAR



Water balance in root zone

ET

Infiltation

Water balance in root zone

Applied water

Precipitation

Runoff

Root zone

-- Water storage

Deep perc (leaching)

Capillary rise


Soil water basics

SoilParticles

Available Water

Gravitational Water

Unavailable Water

Soil-water basics

Field Capacity

Saturated Condition


Field

Capacity

FC

Available

Water

Capacity

AWC

Management Allowed Deficit

MAD


Flocculation is important because water moves mostly in large pores between aggregates. Also, plant roots grow mainly between aggregates.


In all but the sandiest soils, dispersed clays plug soil pores and impede water infiltration and soil drainage.


Soils information2

Dispersion and surface sealing pores and impede water infiltration and soil drainage.

Soils Information

Dispersion and surface sealing from sodium


Crop information
Crop Information pores and impede water infiltration and soil drainage.

  • Crops grown

  • Irrigation water requirements

  • Rooting depth

  • Other physical characteristics


Scheduling system management
Scheduling & System Management pores and impede water infiltration and soil drainage.

  • Check actual soil moisture levels

  • Know the amount of irrigation water applied

  • Know irrigation guidelines for crops grown

  • Track crop water use – evapotranspiration


  • Estimate pores and impede water infiltration and soil drainage. CU

  • Monthly estimate from regional weather data

  • Daily estimate from regional or on-site data

  • Measure applied water

  • Farm delivery

  • Field application

Soil Water Reservoir

  • Measure soil water

  • Field probe + feel

  • Instrumentation


Three elements for iwm
Three elements for IWM pores and impede water infiltration and soil drainage.

ESSENTIAL

  • Estimate or measure soil moisture

  • Measure irrigation water applied

  • Estimate crop consumptive use

     Need ALL 3 items


Implementing iwm
Implementing IWM pores and impede water infiltration and soil drainage.

  • Knowledge of fields, crops, irrigation system

  • Effective IWM requires judgment, observation, and local knowledge

  • Use ALL available information 

    proceed cautiously, test, observe

NO one knows the farm as well as the manager !


Scheduling system management1
Scheduling & System Management pores and impede water infiltration and soil drainage.

  • Check actual soil moisture levels

  • Know the amount of irrigation water applied

  • Know irrigation guidelines for crops grown

  • Track crop water use – evapotranspiration


Iwm records
IWM Records pores and impede water infiltration and soil drainage.

  • Date and duration of each irrigation

  • Water applied in each irrigation

  • Dates and amounts of effective rainfall

  • Crop water use

    • Daily evapotranspiration

    • Water use estimate between irrigations

  • Soil moisture status


Iwm review
IWM Review pores and impede water infiltration and soil drainage.

  • Notes on how well IWM goals were met

  • Description of crop response to IWM Plan

  • Observations of soil erosion, etc.

  • Notes on water/environmental quality issues (Relate to CNMP)

  • Notes on irrigation system operations and maintenance


Thoughts, pores and impede water infiltration and soil drainage.

Questions,

Comments??


Nrcs iwm plan specifications2
NRCS IWM Plan Specifications pores and impede water infiltration and soil drainage.

  • Description of irrigation scheduling and system management

  • IWM record keeping requirements of appropriate detail

  • IWM review


Implementing iwm1
Implementing IWM pores and impede water infiltration and soil drainage.

  • Knowledge of fields, crops, irrigation system

  • Effective IWM requires judgment, observation, and local knowledge

  • Use ALL available information 

    proceed cautiously, test, observe

NO one knows the farm as well as the manager !


Water balance in root zone1

pores and impede water infiltration and soil drainage.

ET

Infiltation

Water balance in root zone

Applied water

Precipitation

Runoff

Root zone

-- Water storage

Deep perc (leaching)

Capillary rise


Water balance in root zone2

Infiltation pores and impede water infiltration and soil drainage.

Water balance in root zone

Applied water

Precipitation

ET

Runoff

(erosion)

Root zone

-- Water storage

(Check uniformity)

Deep perc (leaching)

Capillary rise


System management
System management pores and impede water infiltration and soil drainage.

  • Rainfall -- measure

  • ET --  measure/estimate

  • Soil water --  measure/estimate

  • Application --  measure/estimate Infiltration --  measure/estimate

  • Runoff --  measure/estimate


Conclusion
Conclusion pores and impede water infiltration and soil drainage.

CANNOT depend on

measuring/estimating

only ONE parameter


  • Estimate pores and impede water infiltration and soil drainage. CU

  • Monthly estimate from regional weather data

  • Daily estimate from regional or on-site data

  • Measure applied water

  • Farm delivery

  • Field application

Soil Water Reservoir

  • Measure soil water

  • Field probe + feel

  • Instrumentation


Irrigation system3
Irrigation System pores and impede water infiltration and soil drainage.

  • System type

  • Operating characteristics

    Coefficient of Uniformity (CU) data or distribution uniformity (DU) shall be used in selecting sprinkler spacing, nozzle size, and operating pressure

    For pivots: Min CU = 85%

    Fixed-Solid-set, Big Gun and Periodic Move Sprinkler:

    Min CU = 75 % for deep-rooted crops (4 ft +)

    Min CU = 85 % for shallow-rooted crops


Irrigation system4
Irrigation System pores and impede water infiltration and soil drainage.

  • System type

  • Operating characteristics

    Coefficient of Uniformity (CU) data or distribution uniformity (DU) shall be used in selecting sprinkler spacing, nozzle size, and operating pressure

    For pivots: Min CU = 85%

    Fixed-Solid-set, Big Gun and Periodic Move Sprinkler:

    Min CU = 75 % for deep-rooted crops (4 ft +)

    Min CU = 85 % for shallow-rooted crops


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